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Abnormal Psychology Week 2 Notes

by: AJ Ponte

Abnormal Psychology Week 2 Notes psych 2510

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Psychlogy > psych 2510 > Abnormal Psychology Week 2 Notes
AJ Ponte
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About this Document

These notes cover different psychological models to explain disorders.
Survey of Abnormal Psychology
Julianne Ludlam
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 2510 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Julianne Ludlam in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Survey of Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Week 2 Abnormal Psychology Lecture Notes Current Perspectives  Biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, humanistic, sociocultural, and the integration of the models; biopsychosocial Biological Model  Brian and physical processes lead to abnormal behavior  “Medical model”  Consider problems with brain anatomy or brain chemistry  Brain anatomy: o There are about 100 billion neurons and billions of glial cells in the brain  Brain chemistry: o Abnormal behaviors can come from problems with neuronal communication o Four major parts of a neuron are: cell body, dendrites, axon, and exon terminals o Neuronal communication includes an electric impulse that moves from the cell body down the axon, then a chemical reaction in the synapse, or the gap between neurons o The synapse:  Neurotransmitters- chemical messengers released from presynaptic neuron into the synapse and can be inhibitory or excitatory  Postsynaptic neuron- contains receptor sites that receive the NT  Reuptake- when leftover NTs are taken back into the neuron and put into new vesicles. Certain proteins are needed to help get the NTs absorbed back into the axon.  Medication can block the reuptake process and increase the amount of NTs in the brain o Neurotransmitters:  Serotonin- emotions, thoughts, behavior  Hormones- abnormal functioning of endocrine system  Dopamine- exploratory, pleasure-seeking behavior  Hormones- glands control growth, reproduction, sexual activity, heart rate, energy, reactions to stress  GABA- overall arousal, stress, anxiety  Hormones- Ex. Cortisol  Norepinephrine- mood, emotions  What causes problems with brain anatomy or chemistry: o Hereditary factors or genetics o Evolutionary factors o Viral infection theory  Treatments usually try to alter the physiology of the brain using drugs, psychosurgery and ECT Week 2 Abnormal Psychology Lecture Notes o 4 major drugs are antidepressants, antipsychotics, antianxiety, and mood stabilizers Psychodynamic Model  Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis and the focus of the unconscious  Belief that the Id (pleasure, impulses), Ego(reality, coping), and Superego(morality, block id) influenced behavior  Freud’s Psychosexual stages of Development: o Oral, 0-18 months, mouth is chief means of satisfaction o Anal, 18 months-3 yrs, attention centered on controlling bowels and bladder o Phallic, 3-5 years, sexual organs are source of gratification o Latency, 5-12 years, lack of overt sexual activity or interest o Genital, 12 years- adult, mature expression of sexuality  Defense Mechanisms- everyone uses them, but it is a problem when you used them too much or one specific one a lot o Denial, rationalization, repression, projection, sublimation, reaction formation, undoing  Treatment o Goal- insight and catharsis o Working through o Free association, dream analysis (not used today) o Transference  Contemporary psychodynamic theories and therapies o Ego psychology o Object relations theory o Self-theory o Brief or short-term psychodynamic therapy o Interpersonal therapy  Important ideas shaped by psychoanalytic theories o Childhood experiences shape adult personality o Unconscious influences on personality o Defense mechanisms help to control anxiety o We all experience internal conflict Behavioral Model  Behavior is learned through classical and operant conditioning, and social learning o Can create mental disorders  Classical conditioning of fear response is associated with phobias (Little Albert)  Operant conditioning- negative reinforcement is important to the creation of disorders Week 2 Abnormal Psychology Lecture Notes  Social learning or modeling- learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcers (Bobo doll)  Treatment o Counterconditioning or systematic desensitization o Identify the behavior and replace the bad behavior with a new one o Therapist acts as teacher  Criticisms o Easily tested, but criticized for being too simplistic Cognitive Model  Aaron Beck, “Perception is our reality”  Albert Ellis is a key figure  Focuses on the thought process  Abnormal behaviors result from distorted cognitions, faulty assumptions, or illogical thinking  Depression is a great example  Cognitive distortions- all or nothing thinking, jumping to conclusions, etc.  Treatment o Goal- to change cognitive distortions, negative thoughts, and errors in logic causing problems o Criticisms- easily tested and researched, combines easily with behavioral methods, but doesn’t help everyone, may not result in lasting change Cognitive-Behavioral Model  Helps explain phobias  Adds focus on internal thoughts to concept that behavior is learned Humanistic Model  Carl Rogers- natural tendency to grow and achieve, and basic human need for unconditional positive regard, without UPR we are incapable of self-actualization  Client-centered therapy o Genuineness o Empathy o UPR  Existential and Gestalt theories and therapies  Treatment o Client takes the lead during therapy o Therapist fosters growth on the part of the client o Empathy is crucial  Criticisms- little research support but positive impact on clinical practice Week 2 Abnormal Psychology Lecture Notes Sociocultural Model  Emphasizes environmental, social, and cultural factors in the development of psychological disorders  Family- Social Theorists o Social labels/roles o Social connections o Family structure and communication o Group, couples, family therapies  Multicultural Theorists o Growing field o How culture, race, and ethnicity affect behavior and thought o Behavior must be considered in cultural context o Prejudice and discrimination contribute to disorders Integration: the Biopsychosocial model  There are many possible causes for psychological disorders and they often interact o Biological (genetic, brain malfunctions) o Psychological (thought, emotional changes, learned behaviors) o Social (family, societal, cultural)  Today’s leading models vary widely and none of the models has proved consistently superior Diathesis-Stress Model  Disorders caused by an interaction between: o Diathesis (vulnerability)- underlying traits, temperament, genetic or biological predispositions and thought patterns o Stress- precipitating, immediate stressful circumstances, like life experiences, sad events  If you have a preconceived vulnerability and add stress onto that, you will develop a psychological disorder  It is possible to have a lot of one and not the other


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