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Appendix A

by: Antonio Castillo

Appendix A MARK 3324

Antonio Castillo
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

As recommended by the professor, here are notes from the book for appendix A. Covers research methods and research collection methods.
Consumer Behavior
Adwait Khare
Class Notes
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Popular in Consumer Behavior

Popular in Marketing

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Antonio Castillo on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MARK 3324 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Adwait Khare in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
**Appendix A Notes**  Consumer research methods, a guideline to conducting research on consumer behavior  Secondary data is existing information or data o Any research should start with secondary data o includes: internal data such as past studies, sales reports, accounting records etc.  If can’t find information needed through secondary, rely on primary data o Primary Data are information or data that we collect for the first time in order to answer a specific research questions  Methods of Primary Data include o Sampling  Involves talking to or observing consumers  Key decisions are:  Define the Population  Specify the sampling frame  Select a sampling method  Determine sample size  Other data collections methods include o Depth interviews- may involve a small group  Focus Group interviews can be applied to  Basic need studies  New-product ideas or concept exploration  Product-positioning studies  Advertising and communications research  Background studies on consumers  Establishment of consumer vocabulary as a preliminary step in questionnaire development  Determination of attitudes  Individual depth interviews (one on one) and are appropriate when  Detailed probing is required  Subject matter is confidential  Subject matter is emotionally charged  Need to conform may influence responses  Detailed understanding of complicated behavior is required  Interviews are with professional people o Observation which requires five decisions  Natural vs contrived situation  Do we wait for behavior to occur in its natural environment or do we create an artificial situation in which it will occur?  Open vs disguised observation  To what extent are the consumers aware that we are observing their behavior?  Structured vs unstructured observation  Will we limit our observations to predetermined behaviors or will we note whatever occurs?  Direct or indirect observations  Will we observe the behaviors themselves or merely the outcomes of the behaviors?  Human or mechanical observations  Will the observations be made mechanically or by people? o Physiological Methods are direct observations of physical responses to a stimulus like advertisement  Can be controllable  Eye tracking cameras used to determine how long a consumer stares at an element of stimulus o Projective Techniques designed to measure feelings, attitudes and motivations that consumer are unable or unwilling to reveal o Surveys are a systematic way of gathering information from a large number of people  Involved structure or semi structure questionnaires  i.e Personal Interviews, telephone surveys, mail surveys, online surveys o Experimentation involves changing one or more variables and observing the effect the change has on another variable o Questionnaire Design is a formalize set of questions for eliciting information and can measure: Behavior (past, present or intended), demographic characteristics (age, gender), level of knowledge, attitudes and opinions o Attitude Scales are frequently measured on specialized scales such as  Noncomparative Rating Scale- require the consumer to evaluate an object without directing comparing it to another  How do you like the taste of Diet Pepsi?  Comparative Rating Scale- provides a direct comparison point  How do you like the taste of Toms of Maine compared with Ultra Bright?  Semantic Differential Scale- requires the consumer to rate an item on a number of scales bounded at each end by one of two bipolar adjectives  Rate the Honda Accord on the following attributes. Fast/Fancy  A successful advertisement must accomplish four tasks o Exposure. Must physically reach the consumer o Attention. The consumer must attend to it o Interpretation. It must be properly interpreted o Memory. It must be remembered  Exposure in print media is frequently measured in terms of circulation o However, circulation data are not broken down in a manner consistent with the target market o Television viewing is measured primarily by people meters which are electronic devices that automatically determine if a TV is off or on o Websites can automatically record the totally number of unique visits  Measures of attention are measured in a direct manner using eye tracking o Indirect measures of attention include: theater tests, day-after recall, recognition tests and starch scores o Day-after recall (DAR) is the most popular method of measuring the attention-getting power of television commercials o Starch Scores are the most popular technique for evaluation the attention-attracting power o print ads.  Three main scores are computed  Noted. Percentage of people who recall seeing the ad  Seen-associated. Percentage of those who recall reading a part of the ad that clearly identifies the brand  Read Most. Percentage of those who recall reading 50% or more of the copy


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