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BIO 108 Week 3

by: Taylor Notetaker

BIO 108 Week 3 BSC 108

Taylor Notetaker
Troy University
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

The rest of chapter 2 and most of chapter 3
Introductory Biology for Non Majors
christine yates
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by christine yates in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for Non Majors in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter 2 (Continued)  Properties of Water 6. Not everything will dissolve in water ● Only ionic and polar substances dissolve in water ● Hydrophilic­ water loving (polar) ● Hydrophobic­ nonpolar substance and will not dissolve in water (ex. oils and  fats) 7. Water can Ionize  ● If [H+] > [OH­] = acid  ● IF [H+] <[OH­] = base  PH Scale  ● 0­6 is an acid (has more H) ● 7 is neutral (has equal the amount of H and OH) ● 8­14 is basic (has more OH) Changes in PH of the body fluids can affect 1. How molecules are transported across the membrane 2. How fast chemical reactions take place  3. Change the shape of proteins  8. Acid Rain  ● SO3 and NO2 dissolve in water to form sulfuric and nitric acid causing acid rain.  Effects:  1. Lowers PH of lakes,streams, and soils, killing organisms directly  2. Dissolves toxic metals for example aluminum which contaminate water systems,  killing organisms indirectly.  Chapter 3  Carbon can build Macromolecules  1. Carbohydrates  2. Lipids 3. Proteins  4. Nucleic Acids  Monomer­ a single subunit Polymer­ a large molecule made from many similar small molecules called subunits or  monomers  Dehydration/ Condensation Synthesis of Molecules  ● The removal of water to make polymers  ● A bond forms between 2 monomers  ● 2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of water molecules ● One molecule provides the hydroxyl (OH) and the other provides the hydrogen  (H)  Hydrolysis Reaction ● Breaking a polymer chain  ● Needs water to break the chain of monomers  A hydrogen from water attaches to one monomer and a hydroxyl attaches to the adjacent  monomer  Carbohydrates  ● Subunits are sugars also known as saccharides  ● Polymers are polysaccharides  ● Store Energy (in animals it’s called glycogen, in plants it’s called starch)  ● Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 2:1 ratio  Function of Sugars  1. Provide energy (ready to be broken down to release energy) 2. Provide structure  Monosaccharides  ● Simple sugars ex) glucose­ found in most drinks like soft drinks or sports drinks ,  fructose­ found in fruits, and honey which contains both glucose and fructose  ● They are the main fuel that cells use for cellular work  Disaccharides  ● Double sugar, joined by the process of dehydration synthesis  ● Glucose + Glucose=Maltose  Lactose  ● Glucose+Galactose=Lactose  ● A disaccharide  ● Lactose intolerance­ people with this do not produce enough of the enzyme  lactase (lactase is what breaks down lactose) this is not a milk allergy  ● Lactose intolerance can be managed by ingesting Lactose in a pill form or by  eating lactose free foods.  Sucrose  ● Glucose + Fructose= Sucrose  ● A disaccharide  ● Extracted from sugar cane and the roots of sugar beets  ● Common table salt  High Fructose Corn Syrup  ● Approximately 55% Fructose and 42% Glucose  Polysaccharides  ● Complex carbohydrates  ● Long chains of sugar units  Lipids (Fats) ● Complex group of molecules  ● Hydrophobic ( hates water) Types of Lipids  1. Triglycerides  2. Phospholipids  3. Steroids  Triglycerides  ● Composed of glycerol and fatty acids   ● Glycerol­ hydroxyl functional groups  ● Fatty acids­ long chains of C & H about (14­22) chains long with a carboxyl group at the end  Functions of Triglycerides  ● Energy storage­ has a higher amount of energy than carbohydrates  ● Insulation of warm blooded animals  ● Cushions internal organs  Fatty Acids  ● Saturated­ no double bonds, solid at room temperature, and comes from animal  fat  ● Unsaturated­ contains 1 or more double bond, liquid at room temperature, comes from plants  Healthy Fat ● Omega­3 fatty acid ( comes from nuts, and fish oil) Why do we make trans fats?  1. To increase shelf life of foods, making them last longer. 2. People like eating foods with the creamy and thick texture of soild fats  3. Plant fat is very inexpensive to work with  Phospholipids  1. Similar to neutral fats (they compositie molecules)  2. Contain glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and PO4 3. Some molecules associate with water ( the head) and someone do not (the tail) 4. Phospholipid bilayers of your cell form structures of most biological  membranes  Steroid Functions  1. Stabilize membrane (cholesterol) 2. Chemical messenger ( sex hormones) Synthetic anabolic steroids  ● They are variants of testosterone  ● Can and do pose serious health risks  Major Types of Proteins  1. Structural Proteins  2. Storage Proteins  3. Contractile Proteins  4. Transport Proteins  5. Enzymes  The Monomers of Proteins : Amino Acids  ● All proteins are constructed from a set of 20 kinds of amino acids  ● Each amino acid consists of 4 covalent partners and of those only 3 attachment  groups are common to all amino acids  Amino Acids link to form Protein Polymers  ● Joined together by dehydration synthesis  ● The carboxyl group of amino acids is joined to the amino group of another  ● The result is a peptide bond  ● Process is repeated to get a polypeptide as the result  Every Amino Acid is important  ● A change can affect protein configuartion (shape of the protein) and cause a  malfunction of the protein for ex) sickle cell anemia leads to different amino acid of the  hemoglobin polypeptide  Protein Conformation (Shape) ● Form 3­D shape (important for how they function) 4 levels of protein structure  1. Primary structure (looks like pearls on a chain) 2. Secondary structure ( looks like a folding piece of paper) 3. Tertiary structure­ (looks like shoe laces bunched up) 4. Quaternary  structure­  Mad Cow Disease  ● A prion disease  ● Prion ­ a misfolded protein  ● The infectious and normal forms do not differ in sequence only in shape  What determines Protein shape  ● Unfavorable temperature and PH changes can cause “denaturation” of a protein  in which it unravels and loses its shape/ function ● This can result in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, or Mad Cow Disease 


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