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Week 2 of notes

by: Hannah Friedrichsen

Week 2 of notes GES 101

Hannah Friedrichsen
GPA 3.0

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These notes go over what we did during week 2
Foundations of Environmental Sustainability
Susan E. Melzer
Class Notes
science environmental csu
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Friedrichsen on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GES 101 at Colorado State University taught by Susan E. Melzer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Environmental Sustainability in Global Studies at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
Fundamentals of Global and Environmental Sustainability Environmentally Sustainable Societies: Societies that strive to protect nature’s capitol and live of its revenue. They meet their own needs while also keeping in mind the need of the future generations. o Kind of like living thrifty with nature/     Living Sustainably: Meeting your environmental needs while replenishing and not  degrading the soil, air quality, and natural water sources.      Economic Capitol R  If there is one million dollars than you live sustainably by only  living off of 10% of it a year. That means you would spend 100,000 dollars a year and  that is “living sustainably,” but if you live off of more than that a year you run the risk of  running out too quickly. This should be considered a metaphor for the resources provided by the earth. What is a Resource:  Resource: Anything gained from nature that is wanted or needed. o Examples would be food, water, metals, etc…  There are direct and indirect resources. o Direct Resource: An easily obtainable natural object. This includes sun, air, soil,  or plants. o Indirect Resources: Not easily obtainable; includes things like petroleum or iron.  There are different types of resources. o Perpetual resource: A resources that is always able to be replenished no matter the rate of consumption. For example: The sun. o Renewable resource: This resource is not continuous, but can be replaced pretty  rapidly as long as it is not used faster than it can be replenished. For example:  plants, soil, and water.  Sustainable yield: Is the highest amount of a resource that can be  harvested while allowing the resource to still be able to replenish itself. o Nonrenewable resource: A natural object that cannot be replaced within the  “human time span.” For example: oils and metals.  Metal can be recycled, but petroleum is used and cannot be used over. Tragedy of the Commons: The idea that common or shared property gets over­used. There are ways to prevent this destruction of land/resources: o If the land/resource becomes private property o Use the land under the rate of sustainable yield o Local control over the land/resource Ecological Footprint:     Ecological Footprint: the amount of useful and productive land and water that is needed  to provide for an area, this includes any needed/wanted resource, and that has the ability  to absorb the waste and pollution from area. o Currently humanity is 39% above the earth’s ecological capacity. Three things that greatly effect footprint are agriculture, transportation, and heating and  cooling Environmental Problems: Causes and Connections: Exponential human population growth is a large cause of all of earth’s environmental  problems. Global trade policies don’t factor in environmental protection, money and politics are  overly influential, and countries don’t promote positive ideas of sustainability.     Affluenza: can be described as greed and being materialist, but relates to the environment along the idea that affluent countries over consume.      IPAT mo  Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology In the U.S. we use one hundred times more resources than some of the poorest countries. Some technology can be good for the planet, but other technology is harmful. Changes in human culture affect the environment. o Agricultural revolution o Industrial and medical revolution o Information and globalization revolution Sustaining our Current World:   Using renewable energy sources o Wind o Solar o Nuclear  Reduce, Reuse, Recycle  Better transportation systems o Switching car use to bus or light rail use (mass transportation)  Stabilize population o In order to do that we need to work and bring down the poverty level  “Restore natural systems” Four Scientific Principles: Reliance on solar energy Biodiversity Population control Nutrient recycling These four rules can guide us towards sustainable living. Environmental Physics and a Little Bit of Chemistry:     Environmental Physics: The use of physics, branch of science that focuses on nature,  matter, and energy, in order to research physical progressions with in the environment.     EnvironmeEarth’s surface, water or soil, that affects the way humans live both directly and indirectly. Environmental physics overlaps with many other types of sciences including any in the  geology or chemistry fields. Quick History Overview: Greenhouse warming due to CO2 increase: o Year: 1896 o Discovered by: Svante Arrhenius who was a Swedish physicist and chemist. o He would win the Nobel Prize in 1903 for electric conductivity. Astronomical theory of ice age: o Year: 1930 o Discovered by: Milutin Milanković who was a Siberian geophysicist and a civil  engineer. Development of radiocarbon dating: o Year: 1949 o Discovered by: Willard Frank Libby who was an American physical chemist. o He would win the Nobel Prize in 1960 for chemistry. Start of CO2 time series in Hawaii: o Year: 1958 o Discovered by: Charles David Keeling an American geochemist. o He would win the Tyler Prize for environmental achievement in 2005 Systematics of stable isotopes of water: o Year: 1961 o Discovered by: Harmon Craig who was also an American geochemist o In 1998 he would win the Balzan Prize for geochemistry. First coupled ocean­atmosphere models: o Year: 1969 o Discovered by: Syukuro Manabe a meteorologist and climatologist  o He would win the Revelle Medal in 1993 Mechanism of Ozone depletion: o Year: 1970­1974  CO2 and paleoclimate from ice cores: o Year: 1979 Ocean circulation and abrupt climate change o Year: 1989 What Does Environmental Physics Address: Water and soil for food (primarily food security) Air and ozone depletion Energy: how we get it and how it impacts us Climate change Chlorofluorocarbons: Gases that include: CFCl3, CF2Cl2 These gases used to be used in aerosols and refrigerants. They are not soluble in water, therefore when it rains they are not washed away. They are also rather unreactive so they don’t degrade naturally.  The bond between C and Cl are easily broken with certain radiation (wavelengths 190­ 225 nm) The chlorine atoms that are then formed react with the ozone. They are now banned in over 100 countries, but because they are unreactive they will  continue to persist in the ozone for quite some time. Laws of Thermodynamics:     First Law: “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only change forms.”     Second La“The entropy of the universe tends to a maximum.”     Third L“As the temperature of a system approaches absolute zero (−273.15°C, 0 K), then the value of the entropy approaches a minimum.” These each describe the behavior of energy and why we cannot have essential “free  energy.” Faraday’s Law:  “The induced electromotive force in any closed circuit is equal to the negative of the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit.”  This means that energy can be converted from mechanical into electrical with a system of magnets and coils. Nitrogen Oxides:  This combination makes up smog, the brown air that we see settle over cities.  NO2 can and does form off of car exhaust.  Photochemical Smog: Smog that encompasses ozone, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxides,  and particles. o Health risks include COPD or asthma. o The Great London Smog of 1952 killed 12,000 people The Mathematics of Sustainability: Calculus can study the change with in system overtime. Realizing that things are continues is important     Discrete Dynamics: change occurs in steady intervals Exponential Growth:     Rate of Growth equation: (dN/dt)= rN o dN/dt is the change in the population over time. o N is the number of individuals at the time (time is t) o R is the exponential growth o R is also the gain or loss of individuals     Number of individuals over time equation: N(t)= N0e> to the power of rt o N is still the number of individuals at the time  o R is the rate of growth o E is the log base o And N0 is the initial population size


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