History and Studies of Management Notes
History and Studies of Management Notes MGMT 3202
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carson Talbert on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 3202 at East Carolina University taught by Tiffany Woodward in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Management in Business at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
History of Management and Management studies Notes History of management Before the Industrial Revolution: All work places had a small amount of employees and were very skilled at creating the product. After the Industrial Revolution: Most work places used machinery to help build product and workers were not as skilled. Also there were a lot more factories with a lot more employees. Managers had to evolve to the new work environment and change the way they were used to managing. Scientific Management: This is a management method that makes the employees focus on one piece of the product and then pass it on to the next worker. By doing this the workers become more efficient in their areas, which in return increases the production rate. Helps the managers watch how the product is made in section and from that he can change the methods of how it is made if there is a better way to increase efficiency. Downsides: The employees become bored of doing the same task everyday and because of that it is hard to keep them motivated. Also there is little/no rewards for employees that do better, which in return gives the employees even less motivation to do better. Bureaucratic Theory: This is a formal structure that has a boss and workers beneath him. Having this type of structure in the work place the employees are treated fairly. With having structure it created higher-level jobs and workers all had set hours with rules to following during them. Depending on how well you do in your job there is chance for promotion, which creates more responsibility and different tasks. Downsides: With so much structure and rules it took away any creativity employees might have. Communication was lost because of the ranking of jobs. Also having different level positions, it took longer to make decision because of the time it took to get to the boss. Hawthorne Studies: These were different test taken to see if by changing something in the work place such as, brightness in lighting, would affect work efficiency. Test one Different lighting was the first test ran and results were positive meaning work efficiency increased. However, after the test was over work efficiency went back down, which was unexpected. Test two After that happened they started testing everything, space, location, temperature, etc. Again, the efficiency increased during the tests. Researches didn’t know why though all they knew was that efficiency was affected by something. Then by accident they discovered that giving the employees that attention is what was increasing it. So by this study they discovered that the attitude of a manager or boss is directly correlated to increase in efficiency. Test three They tested to see if there was a correlation between money and efficiency. They ran this by giving employees hourly wage and giving bonuses based on group outputs. This didn’t work. The employees were scared that if they did become more efficient people might start getting laid off or they might get paid less. The employees all; worked at a steady pace to make sure efficiency stayed the same. Informal Organizations: Social structure of how people work in a workplace. Organizational Behavior: behavior of people in an organization. Theory X and Y This is the theory that there are two different types of managers. Theory X: states that all managers are lazy, don’t like to do there job, and get by with doing as little work as they can. Theory Y: States the exact opposite, they love their job, and work hard at it.
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