Developmental Psych Ch. 2 notes
Developmental Psych Ch. 2 notes PSY 2603
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter 2 psych Genes and gene environment interactions Genetic transmission and disorders Heredity environment interactions How do we study inheritability? Genetic transmission: Genotype: genetic code Phenotype: expression of those genes Each cell contains: chromosomes (23 pairs) made up of DNA genes are short segments of DNA what affects gene expression? “the collaborative gene” Genetic Principles: Dominant and recessive genes Sexlinked genes x chromosome has many more genes than y sometimes a mutated gene is carried on x no corresponding gene location on y gene is automatically expressed (even if recessive) Genetic imprinting the way a gene is expressed, depending on whether it was inherited by the mother or father Polygenic inheritance result of interaction of multiple genes; important to continuance in species bc it allows for variability thus durability Chromosomes threadlike structures made up of DNA DNA complex molecule with double helix shape that contains genetic information Genes units of hereditary information Human Genome Project used to identify genetic variations linked to a particular disorder (obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s) Mitosis cell nucleus duplicates itself Meiosis cell division to form gametes (sex cells) Fertilization male and female gametes (sperm and egg) come together to form a single cell (zygote) Behavior Genetics: Influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development Twin and adoption studies Twin studies behavioral similarity of genetically identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins Adoption Studies studies to determine if adopted children are more like their adoptive parents or more like their biological parents (home environment vs heredity) Shared environmental experiences siblings’ common experiences (parents, home) Nonshared environmental experiences siblings’ unique experiences (friends, school teachers) Epigenetic view development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment Prenatal Development: Ovum female cell Germinal Period period of prenatal development that takes place in the first two weeks after conception Embryonic period occurs from 2 to 8 weeks after conception Organogenesis period of organ formation during the first 2 months of development Fetal period occurs from 2 months after conception until birth (lasts about 7 months) Chorionic Villus Sampling used to screen for genetic defects and chromosome abnormalities Amniocentesis used to test for chromosome or metabolic disorders; carries a risk of miscarriage Fetal sex determination can determine sex as early as 7 weeks after conception, but usually at 1113 weeks Teratogen any factor that could cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes Psychoactive drugs alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods (caffeine, alcohol, nicotine) Genetic disorders: PKU(phenylketonuria) caused by recessive gene that inhibits metabolism or phenylalanine; need to inherit 2 recessive genes (1 gene=carrier); effect on development: toxic buildup prevents healthy brain development Sickle Cell anemia caused by 2 recessive genes on chromosome 11; effect on development: red blood cells become elongated due to atypical hemoglobin structure. Elongated cells start to clog small blood vessels (causes extreme pain, tissue damage, anemia); can be fatal if cells clog vessels in heart, lungs Chromosome disorders: Down syndrome extra chromosome at pair 21 (trisomy 21) causes intellectual disability (moderate to severe cognitive disability) and physical abnormalities (shorter than average, almond shaped eyes with eyelid fold, susceptible to a variety of diseasesearly onset Alzheimer’s, asthma, heart disorders, leukemia) communication: difficulty in learning language, articulation Sexlinked chromosomal abnormalities: Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY or XXX) extra X chromosome causes physical abnormalities physical: femalesnone males: sterility and female body type such as breast development cognitive: females: issues with short term memory and verbal skills males: reading problems, verbal deficits, and sometimes cognitive disability XYY syndrome extra Y chromosome causes above average height in males Fragile X syndrome abnormality in X chromosome causes intellectual disability physical: variety of abnormalities, such as cleft palate and seizures social: psychological and social problems; anxiety, hyperactivity, ADD, social skills deficit cognitive: sometimes causes cognitive disability Turner syndrome (XO) missing x chromosome in females can cause intellectual disability and sexual underdevelopment physical: shorter, stubby fingers, webbed neck, often infertile, no secondary sex characteristics (ie breasts) social: social skills deficit, difficulty interpreting emotional cues and facial expressions HeredityEnvironment Interactions: 1. “environment” can influence the expression of genes Genes are useless without their environment hormones, other genes, cellular events hormones influenced by light, nutrition, etc. Range of reaction set by our genes (ex: IQ range set by genes) determined by environment (where you fall in the range) nature and nurture EX: Environment influences genetic expression Q: Can an enriched environment make up for an individual’s genetic deficits? Study: “mazebright” vs “maze dull” rats raised in different environments Q: which group performed best? 4 groups: 3. MB raised in boring cages (impoverished env.) 1. MB in exciting cages (enriched env.) 4. MD in boring cages 2. MD in exciting cages Some genetically inferior rats outperformed some genetically superior rats EX: PKU genetic disorder: environmental agent interfering with genetic expression Our genes can influence our environments Genotype Environment Theory Passive, Active, and Evocative effects Passive effects: parents provide their children with environments that match their own dispositions, strengths, talents reinforcing because children have genetic similarity to parents Ex: high IQ parents provide many books for their children kids also have genetic tendency to be intelligent, which is reinforced by reading Passive effects become less powerful over time (children grow up and start making own decisions) Active effects: Niche picking: selecting experiences that are compatible with one’s inherited tendencies become increasingly important as we get older (exercising autonomy) Evocative effects: peoples inherited tendencies and dispositions evoke a response from other people and shapes experiences Ex: highly verbal children are talked to more by adults; facilitates their language development more effects tend to remain stable over time
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