Chapter 1: Thinking Critically...
Chapter 1: Thinking Critically... Psych 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke McGloon on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at James Madison University taught by Dr. David Daniel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 573 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Psych 101 Psychology : (combination of philosophy and physiology) the science of behavior and mental processes (behavior being: anything an organism does—any action we can observe and record, mental process being: the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior—sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings) Psychology’s origin comes from many disciplines and countries History of Psychology - Birth of psychology in December 1879 in a small room at Germany’s University of Leipzig - Philosophy and medicine running society - Consciousness, Perception (sight-seeing colors- touching), - Schools of thought: o Structuralism: to reveal the structure of the human mind, promoted by Wundt and Titchener o Functionalism: looking as a whole—cannot deconstruct car/individual —keeping it together)—explored how mental and behavioral processes function and how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish, promoted by James and influenced by Darwin - Reductionism: reducing/breaking structures down - Introspection: looking inside yourself/inward (touch-> pain) - Psychology was defined as “the science of mental life” - 1920’s John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner redefined psychology as “the scientific study of observable behavior” - WWII and the rise of psychology - How do you get all these people and put them where they go? (testing) - 1960’s Rise of Behaviorism (behaviorists) - Freudian psychology - Humanistic psychologists: drew attention to ways that current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied - HIPPIE- Humanism (only one with Free will) (1960’s) - Emphasis on personal growth and fulfillment process - Cognitive psychology 1960’s-1990’s (thinking): how we perceive, process, and remember info and even why we get anxious or depressed (cognitive neuroscience) - How we manipulate (process) info influences how we behave - Evolutionary psychology (functionalism revisited) - Natural selection—favors behaviors that enhance an organism reproductive success - Things exist because they help you survive - 1980’s increased interest in how cultural factors influence behavior—people think different people/things are attractive - New/current era is neuroscience/biological psychology (the brain) Plato Knowledge is born with a person The mind is separate from the body Brain mechanism of mental processes Aristotle Theorized about learning and memory, motivation and emotion, perception and personality The mind and the body are together Knowledge is learned with experience Heart mechanism of mental processes John Locke The mind is born as a blank state Science should rely on observation and experimentation Wilhelm Wundt Founded first psychology lab in Germany 1879 Worked on a machine that measured the time lag between people’s hearing a ball hit a platform and their pressing a telegraph key (people responded in about 1/10 of a second when asked to press key as soon as the sound occurred, people responded in about 2/10 of a second when asked to press they key as soon as they were consciously aware of perceiving the sound)— he was seeking to measure “atoms of the mind” (the fastest and simplest mental processes) Focused on inner sensations, images, and feelings Edward Bradford Titchener Wundt’s student Engaged people in introspection, training them to report elements of their experiences (what were their immediate sensations, their images, their feelings) Focused on inner sensations, images, and feelings and engaged in introspective examination of the stream of consciousness and emotion William James An American philosopher Thinking like smelling developed because it was adaptive Consciousness serves a function—it enables us to consider our past, adjust to our present, and plan for our future James encouraged explorations of down-to-earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment-to-moment steams of consciousness Darwin Why is it there What does it do for us Mary Whiton Calkins Admitted into James’ graduate seminar Became a distinguished memory researcher and the American Psychological Association’s first female president in 1905 Margaret Floy Washburn First female to receive a psychology Ph.D. Wrote The Animal Mind (synthesized animal behavior research) Became the APA’s second female president in 1921 John B. Watson 1913, argued that a science could only study what can be objectively observed An organism’s behavior is not a consequence You are whatever I make you to be You’re a blank slate B.F. Skinner A behaviorist Rejected introspection and redefined psychology with Watson as “the scientific study of observable behavior”, studied how consequences shape behavior You cannot observe a sensation, a feeling, or a thought, but you can observe and record people’s behavior as they respond to different situations Sigmund Freud An Austrian physician, personality theorist and therapist One of his primary contributions was to introduce the concept of the unconscious Most of you is below the surface Freudian psychology: emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and our emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior Fields of Psychology (cannot give drugs—psychiatry can, which studies medicine) Mental Health/Clinical Psychologists o Counseling/intervention for mentally impaired people even up to sychozophrenia o Assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders Counseling psychology o Talk therapy o Help people to cope with challenges and crises o Help people to improve their personal and social functioning Developmental psychology o How people grow/lifespan/from womb to death/change over time Social psychology o How do other people in groups effect your behavior (clothes, way you think) o Example: one person in elevator and others come in and face backwards, that one person will do the same Cognitive psychology o How people think—encode, process, store, and retrieve info Neuropsychology/Biopsychology o Brain Industrial Organizational psychology o Workforce/production/human factors and social psychology Human factor psychology o Organize/arrange things o Example: cockpit needed to be designed better towards how people think—crash rate 74% unacceptable so changed color pop for important things in cockpit and to be convenient for dominant hand, crash rate went to 10% School psychology/Guidance o Testing o Emotional support for kids o Best education they can get Evolutionary psychology/Behavior Genetics o Example: lead can be passed on through genes Nature-nurture issue (are our human traits present at birth, or do they develop through experience?) - Plato (Greek philosopher) assumed we inherit character and intelligence— certain ideas are inborn - Aristotle thought there is nothing in the mind that does not come in from the external world through the sense - Charles Darwin came up with natural selection: from among chance variations, nature selects traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment—he believed this theory explained not only animal structures (polar bears white coat) but also animal behaviors (the emotional expressions associated with human lust and rage) - How humans are alike (because of our common biology and evolutionary history) and how we are different (because of our differing environments) - Are gender differences predisposed or socially constructed? - Is children’s grammar mostly innate or formed by experiences? - Nurture works on what nature endows - Our species is biologically endowed with an enormous capacity to learn and adapt Levels of Analysis: the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon Different levels of analysis form a biopsychosocial approach: an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis o Biological influences: Natural selection of adaptive traits Genetic predispositions responding to environment Brain mechanisms Hormonal influences o Psychological influences Learned fears and other expectations Emotional responses Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations o Social-cultural influences: Presence of others Cultural, societal, and family expectations Peer and other group influences Compelling models (such as in the media) Each level provides a vantage point for viewing a behavior or mental process, yet each by itself is incomplete Example of how each sheds light on anger: Working from a neuroscience perspective one might study brain circuits that cause us to be “red in the face” and “hot under the collar” Working from the evolutionary perspective one might analyze how anger facilitated the survival of our ancestors’ genes Working from the behavior genetics perspective one might analyze how heredity and experience Working from the psychodynamic perspective one might view an outburst as an outlet for unconscious hostility Working from the behavioral perspective one might attempt to determine which external stimuli trigger angry responses or aggressive acts Working from the cognitive perspective one might study how our interpretation of a situation affects our anger and how our anger affects our thinking Working from the social-cultural perspective one might explore how expressions of anger vary across cultural contexts Point to remember: each of psychology’s perspectives is helpful, but each by itself fails to reveal the whole picture Research Methods Basic research: pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Biological psychologists exploring links between brain and mind Developmental psychologists studying our changing abilities from womb to tomb Cognitive psychologists experimenting with how we perceive, think, and solve problems Personality psychologists investigating our persistent traits Social psychologists exploring how we view and affect one another Applied research: aims to solve practical problems Industrial-organizational psychologists using psychology’s concepts and methods in the workplace to help organizations and companies select and train employees, boost morale and productivity, design products, and implement systems The Positive Psychology: the scientific study of human functioning with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive—more research on human strengths and human flourishing, explores positive emotions, positive character traits, and enabling institutions Hindsight bias: the tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon) (often lead us to overestimate our intuition) Critical thinking: thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions, rather, it examines assumptions, discerns, hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions The scientific method Theory: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behavior or events A good theory produces testable predictions… a hypothesis: a testable prediction, often implied by a theory Operational definitions: a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as “what an intelligence test measures” Replication: repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances - In the end our theory will be useful if 1) it organizes a range of self-reports and observations and 2) implies predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or to derive practical applications - We can test our hypotheses and refine our theories using descriptive methods (which describe behaviors, often through case studies, naturalistic observations, or surveys), correlational methods which associate different factors), and experimental methods (which manipulate factors to discover their effects) Description (observing and describing) What question is being asked? o Based in theory Is it biased? (How does… How much do you like…) What do they want to make conclusions about? Population: all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn —the people you want to talk about, all the study applies to (ex. working women) Sample: everyone in an experiment Representative sample: has to reflect population Random sample: a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has equal chance of inclusion GOAL: to generalize population Important aspects of measurement: - Operational definitions of variables (What is aggression? And who has more? If we define aggression as kicking/hitting then boys, if we define it as cattiness/social aggression then girls) - Validity (How well does the procedure actually measure the variable under study?) - Reliability/Consistency (Are the same results obtained with repeated measurement? How do they gather their data?) Naturalistic Observation (observing in the study’s natural context) Strength: o Can see it in real life Weakness: o Not act same if someone is watching—participant reactivity o Lacks control—too much you don’t know o Observes bias—you look more into things/reading into it Case Study (one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles) (ex. Guy with head screws studied represents all guys with head screws) Strength: o Rich data/in-depth Weakness: o Representativeness (is the study really representative of the general population?? Surveys (asks people to report behavior of opinions, looks at MANY cases so less depth) Strength: o Efficient—quick and cheap Weakness: o Question bias (subtle changes in the wording) o Lies (people lie) Correlation: a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other—a positive correlation (between 0 and +1.00) indicates a direct relationship (two things increase/decrease together, a negative correlation (between 0 and -1.00) indicates an inverse relationship (as one thing increases, the other decreases) Point to remember: A correlation coefficient (statistical index of the relationship between 2 things, from -1 to 1) helps us see the world more clearly by revealing the extent to which two things relate Lab Experiments - 2 groups: experimental group (receiving treatment) and control group (do not receive/placebo) - To minimize preexisting differences between the two groups, researchers randomly assign people to them—need groups to be so similar that only difference is the drug etc. - Double-blind procedure: neither the participants nor those who administer the drug or placebo and collect the data will know which group is receiving the treatment - Placebo effect: experimental results caused by expectations alone—just thinking you are getting a treatment can boost your spirits, relax your body, and relieve your symptoms - Independent variable: what they’re doing to you (dosage of drug) - Dependent variable: what they’re measuring (the results) - Confounding variable: a factor other than the independent (extraneous) variable that might produce effect in experiment—not what you’re giving/controlling (age, weight, personality) Informed consent: giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to decide whether they wish to participate Debriefing: the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants
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