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Human Bio, week of 01/13

by: Eleonora Sacks

Human Bio, week of 01/13 BSC 2023

Eleonora Sacks
GPA 3.92

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Cell, mitochondria, metabolism, tonicity
Human Biology
Paul Sharp
Class Notes
Biology, Human Biology, cells, Mitochondria, tonicity
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleonora Sacks on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Class Notes: 01/13 • Basic characteristics of living organisms: 1. Organized (has cells, sistems, etc) 2. Ability to reproduce 3. Have homeostasis 4. Respond to stimuli 5. Acquire and store energy and materials 6. Have an evolutionary history 7. Grow and develop • Homeostasis: body equilibrium, the body’s internal environment remains constant and between physiological limits.  • Negative   feedback:   reduces   and   eliminates   changes   in   the   body,   allows homeostasis. Eg: sweating when hot to get back to normal temperature. • Cell: smallest unit that has life. There are over 200 different types of cells in the human body, and 50 to 60 trillion cells in the human body. They are so small because they need a large surface area to volume ratio (the distance between the nucleus and the membrane has to be smaller so that materials can get to and from the nucleus faster). • Diffusion: when molecules go from being in a place of high concentration of them to a place where there is low concentration of them. Also how materials and nutrients get into the cell. Requires no energy (Passive transport). • Cell theory: 1. Cell: basic unit of life 2. All living things are made of cells 3. New cells only arise from pre­existing cells Types of cells: • • Eukaryotes: have membrane bound nucleus and organelles. Eg: animal and plant cells. • Prokaryotes: non­membrane bound nucleus and organelles. eg: Bacteria • Parts of the cell: • Plasma membrane: regulates what enters and leaves the cell, the boundary between outside and inside the cell. Selectively permeable. Composed of a phospholipid (has a head that is hydrophillic and a tail that is hydrophobic) bilayer, sugars and embedded proteins (some allow materials to pass through them). Class Notes: 01/13 the   Fluid   Mosaic   Model   (named   for   the changing location and patterns of protein molecules in fluid phospholipid bilayer) • Osmosis: diffusion of water • Tonicity: the osmotic characteristics of a solution across a membrane. 1.  Isotonic: a solution that has the same concentration of water and non­diffused solutes on both sides of a membrane. 2.   Hypertonic:   a   solution   that   has   high   concentration   of   solutes   and   low concentration of water outside the cell. 3.   Hypotonic:   a   solution   that   has   a   low   concentration   of   solutes   and   high concentration of water oustide the cell.  • Facilitated transport: type of passive transport that uss a plasma membrane carrier   (proteins)   to   carry   a substance   into or out of a cell, going from a higher concentration to a lower one. • Active   transport:   use   of plasma membrane carrier to carry substance from higher to lower transportation. Requires energy (usually ATP). Eg: sodium­potassium pump Metabolism: chemical reactions that happen in the cell • • Enzymes: proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the required activation energy (the lowest amount of energy needed for it to happen) • Active site: on the surface of an enzyme, it’s where the substrate binds and the reaction occurs. Specific to each substrate (like a keyhole) • Substrate: reactant in the reaction that is controlled by enzyme. (like the key) • Mitochondria: organelle with 2 membranes responsible for cellular respiration (converts glucose into ATP) • Cellular respiration formula:  • Parts of the mitochondria: • Cristae: folded extensions of the inner membrane that produce ATP • Matrix: gel­like fluid inside the inner membrane that contains enzymes for breaking down glucose found between the cristae. • Intermembrane space: found between the two membranes


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