New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Human Bio, week of 01/20

by: Eleonora Sacks

Human Bio, week of 01/20 BSC 2023

Eleonora Sacks
GPA 3.92

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

cellular respiration, fermentation, endocytosis, exocytosis, cell cycle, nucleus, endomembrane system
Human Biology
Paul Sharp
Class Notes
Biology, Human Biology, Cellular Respiration, fermentation, endocytosis, exocytosis, Cell Cycle, nucleus, endomembrane system
25 ?




Popular in Human Biology

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleonora Sacks on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Florida International University.


Reviews for Human Bio, week of 01/20


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/31/16
Class notes: week of 01/20 • Bomb calorimeter: measures the amount of calories in food Pathways of cellular respiration: • 1.  Glycolisis:  • Happens in the cytoplasm. • Doesn’t need oxygen (anaerobic) • Produces 2 ATP • Break down of glucose: splits a molecule of glucose C  into 26pyruvates of C 3  Converts 2 molecules of NAD+ (a coenzyme that carries hydrogen and 2  • electrons) into NADH. 2.  Citric Acid cycle/Kreb cycle: • The pyruvates enter the mitochondria’s matrix • Happens in the matrix • Aerobic process (needs oxygen) • The pyruvates are broken down further and produce 2 ATP per glucose  molecule • NAD+ accepts hydrogen and electrons and converts to NADH 3.  Electron transport chain: • Happens in the inner membrane of the mitochondria • Electrons pass through membrane­bound carrier molecules from a higher  energy level to a lower energy level. Hydrogen is moved to the intermembrane space by active transport • • Oxygen makes the electrons go from one carrier to the next (like a parent  making their child go down the slide) When the electrons move, energy is released, and it is used to pump the  • hydrogen into the intermembrane space.  • The hydrogen wants to go back to the matrix because of diffusion (it’s in a high  concentration in the intermembrane space), so it passes through a protein that  spins and produces ATP • The electrons and hydrogen come from the NADH • Produces H2O and 32 ATP Class notes: week of 01/20 • ««Remember: ATP is like a dollar bill, NAD+ is like a giftcard without money, and NADH is like a giftcard with money for a specific time and place»» • Fermentation: anaerobic process. Allows the NADH to release its electrons and  its hydrogen to pyruvate. Converts pyruvate to lactate to do this. Produces 2 ATP per  glucose. Yeast produces alcohol and CO2 • Endocytosis: a portion of the plasma membrane invaginates to envelop a  substance or fluid. Types: 4.  Phagocytosis: solid particles 5.  Pinocytosis: fluids 6.  Receptor­mediated: uses membrane protein receptor to concentrate specific  molecules. • Exocytosis: vesicles in cell fuse with the plasma membrane during secretion  (reverse of endocytosis) Eg: Neurotransmitters, hormones. • • Cytoplasm: cytosol and organelles • Cytosol: fluid portion of the cytoplasm • Organelle: small membraneous structure with a specific function. Eg:  mitochondria • Cytoskeleton: mantains cell shapes, anchors organelles and allows cell  movement. Composed of: • Microtubules: long hollow protein cylinders found in the cytoplasm and in cilia and  flagellas, used as tracks for organelle movement. Class notes: week of 01/20 • Intermediate filaments: protein fibers that provide strength and support • Microfilaments: actin protein fibers that move cell and organelles (like little motors) • Centriole: short cylinders of microtubules that divide and organize spindle fibers  during mitosis and meiosis • Centrosome: 2 centrioles that function as a microtubule organizing center. Active  during cell division. • Nucleus: houses chromosomal DNA • Nuclear envelope: double membrane that encloses nucleus with nuclear pores • Chromatin: diffuse threads containing DNA (DNA not in form of chromosomes) • Nucleolus: region that produces subunits of ribosomes. • Nucleoplasm: semifluid medium inside nucleus • Nuclear pores: allow ribosomal subunits to exit and proteins to enter. • Ribosomes: synthesize proteins using mRNA (messenger RNA: a copy of DNA  that has genetic information) template • Endomembrane system: a series of membraneous organelles that process  materials for the cell: • Nuclear envelope • E.R. (endoplasmatic reticulum): continuous of the nuclear envelope, has saccules  and channels: • Rough E.R.: has ribosomes embedded on the side that faces the cytoplasm.  The ribosomes synthesize proteins and then the proteins enter the ER interior  for processing and modifications • Smooth E.R.: has no ribosomes. Synthesizes phospholipids. • Golgi apparatus: modifies lipids and proteins from the ER and sorts, packages and  distributes molecules synthesized by cell (like the Fedex of the cell) • Lysosomes: membraneous sacs produced by the Golgi, contain hydrolitic enzymes that break down things inside them. Can fuse with endocytic vesicles. • Vesicles: tiny membraneous sacs • Meiosis: cell division in sperm and ovules (only in sexual reproduction). Daughter cells receive haploid number of chromosomes in varied combinations. • Mitosis: cell division for growth, development and repair. Daughter cells receive  exact chromosomal and genetic info that parent cell has.         Cell cycle: repeating sequence of cellular events 7.  Interphase: has 3 stages: Class notes: week of 01/20 a.a. Growth (G1): cell returns to normal phase, resumes its functions and  doubles its organelles a.b. Synthesis (S): DNA replication (now a chromosome has 2 sister             cromatids) a.c. Growth (G2): increase in growth and final preparations for division 8.  Mitosis 9.  Cytokinesis: division of cytoplasm •


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.