Human Bio, week of 01/20
Human Bio, week of 01/20 BSC 2023
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleonora Sacks on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Class notes: week of 01/20 • Bomb calorimeter: measures the amount of calories in food Pathways of cellular respiration: • 1. Glycolisis: • Happens in the cytoplasm. • Doesn’t need oxygen (anaerobic) • Produces 2 ATP • Break down of glucose: splits a molecule of glucose C into 26pyruvates of C 3 Converts 2 molecules of NAD+ (a coenzyme that carries hydrogen and 2 • electrons) into NADH. 2. Citric Acid cycle/Kreb cycle: • The pyruvates enter the mitochondria’s matrix • Happens in the matrix • Aerobic process (needs oxygen) • The pyruvates are broken down further and produce 2 ATP per glucose molecule • NAD+ accepts hydrogen and electrons and converts to NADH 3. Electron transport chain: • Happens in the inner membrane of the mitochondria • Electrons pass through membranebound carrier molecules from a higher energy level to a lower energy level. Hydrogen is moved to the intermembrane space by active transport • • Oxygen makes the electrons go from one carrier to the next (like a parent making their child go down the slide) When the electrons move, energy is released, and it is used to pump the • hydrogen into the intermembrane space. • The hydrogen wants to go back to the matrix because of diffusion (it’s in a high concentration in the intermembrane space), so it passes through a protein that spins and produces ATP • The electrons and hydrogen come from the NADH • Produces H2O and 32 ATP Class notes: week of 01/20 • ««Remember: ATP is like a dollar bill, NAD+ is like a giftcard without money, and NADH is like a giftcard with money for a specific time and place»» • Fermentation: anaerobic process. Allows the NADH to release its electrons and its hydrogen to pyruvate. Converts pyruvate to lactate to do this. Produces 2 ATP per glucose. Yeast produces alcohol and CO2 • Endocytosis: a portion of the plasma membrane invaginates to envelop a substance or fluid. Types: 4. Phagocytosis: solid particles 5. Pinocytosis: fluids 6. Receptormediated: uses membrane protein receptor to concentrate specific molecules. • Exocytosis: vesicles in cell fuse with the plasma membrane during secretion (reverse of endocytosis) Eg: Neurotransmitters, hormones. • • Cytoplasm: cytosol and organelles • Cytosol: fluid portion of the cytoplasm • Organelle: small membraneous structure with a specific function. Eg: mitochondria • Cytoskeleton: mantains cell shapes, anchors organelles and allows cell movement. Composed of: • Microtubules: long hollow protein cylinders found in the cytoplasm and in cilia and flagellas, used as tracks for organelle movement. Class notes: week of 01/20 • Intermediate filaments: protein fibers that provide strength and support • Microfilaments: actin protein fibers that move cell and organelles (like little motors) • Centriole: short cylinders of microtubules that divide and organize spindle fibers during mitosis and meiosis • Centrosome: 2 centrioles that function as a microtubule organizing center. Active during cell division. • Nucleus: houses chromosomal DNA • Nuclear envelope: double membrane that encloses nucleus with nuclear pores • Chromatin: diffuse threads containing DNA (DNA not in form of chromosomes) • Nucleolus: region that produces subunits of ribosomes. • Nucleoplasm: semifluid medium inside nucleus • Nuclear pores: allow ribosomal subunits to exit and proteins to enter. • Ribosomes: synthesize proteins using mRNA (messenger RNA: a copy of DNA that has genetic information) template • Endomembrane system: a series of membraneous organelles that process materials for the cell: • Nuclear envelope • E.R. (endoplasmatic reticulum): continuous of the nuclear envelope, has saccules and channels: • Rough E.R.: has ribosomes embedded on the side that faces the cytoplasm. The ribosomes synthesize proteins and then the proteins enter the ER interior for processing and modifications • Smooth E.R.: has no ribosomes. Synthesizes phospholipids. • Golgi apparatus: modifies lipids and proteins from the ER and sorts, packages and distributes molecules synthesized by cell (like the Fedex of the cell) • Lysosomes: membraneous sacs produced by the Golgi, contain hydrolitic enzymes that break down things inside them. Can fuse with endocytic vesicles. • Vesicles: tiny membraneous sacs • Meiosis: cell division in sperm and ovules (only in sexual reproduction). Daughter cells receive haploid number of chromosomes in varied combinations. • Mitosis: cell division for growth, development and repair. Daughter cells receive exact chromosomal and genetic info that parent cell has. Cell cycle: repeating sequence of cellular events 7. Interphase: has 3 stages: Class notes: week of 01/20 a.a. Growth (G1): cell returns to normal phase, resumes its functions and doubles its organelles a.b. Synthesis (S): DNA replication (now a chromosome has 2 sister cromatids) a.c. Growth (G2): increase in growth and final preparations for division 8. Mitosis 9. Cytokinesis: division of cytoplasm •
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