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Chapter 1- Intro to Psyc Tests and Measurements

by: Aimee Castillon

Chapter 1- Intro to Psyc Tests and Measurements PSYC320

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC320 > Chapter 1 Intro to Psyc Tests and Measurements
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
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Psyc Tests and Measurements
David Ferrier

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About this Document

I took notes on Ferrier's lecture video. Here it is for anyone who missed it.
Psyc Tests and Measurements
David Ferrier
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC320 at George Mason University taught by David Ferrier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Psyc Tests and Measurements in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Organization name Aimee Castillon acasti7gmuedu L ll Galton s Brass psychology StanfordBinet test US was more sound BinetSimon test introduced IQ What s wrong with separately testing people with different reading ab y Brief History of Testing c 22002000 BC Chinese civil service exams Carl Frederich Gauss and the normal distribution Civil Service exams in Europe By 1883 American Civil Service Commission established Individual differences Despite our similarities no two humans are exactly alike Darwin some of these individual differences are more adaptive than others Francis Galton Darwin s cousin Wrote Hereditary Genius 1869 Sets up an anthropometric lab at the International Exposition of 1884 French Society for the Psychological Study of the Child urged French ministers to develop special classes for children who failed to respond to normal schooling Ministers required a way to identify the children Alfred Binet First intelligence test BinetSimon Scale of 1905 30 items of increasing difficulty Standardized administration Same instructions and format for ALL children Standardization sample Created norms by which performance one child can be compared with other children 1916 BinetSimon translated for US use World War Robert Yerkes Need for largescale group administered ability tests by the army Army commissions Yerkes then head of APA to develop two structured tests of human abilities Army Alpha required reading ability Army Beta did not require reading ability Testing frenzy hits between WI and 19303 Personality testing Woolworth Personal Data Sheet First objective personality test meant to aid in psychiatric interviews Developed during WWI School psychologists use projective testing despite the scrutiny regarding it Why can39t colleges just rely on students GPAs Achievement vs aptitude achievement tests past knowledge Aptitude tests future knowledgelperforma nce Objective vs subjective test Objective tests usually have ONE correct answer Subjective tests usually have no definite correct answer Designed to screen out soldiers unfit for duty Projective testing Herman Rorscharch inkblot test 1921 Started with great suspicion first serious study in 1932 Symmetric colored and blackwhite inkblot College admission tests SAT and ACT Wechsler Intelligence Scales Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI The Language of Assessment test device or procedure in which a sample of an individual s behavior is obtained evaluated and scored using standardized procedures Measurement set of rules for assigning numbers to represent objects traits attributes or behaviors Assessment systematic procedure for collecting information that can be used to make inferences about the characteristics of people or objects Reliability of scores stability consistency and relative accuracy of the test scores Validity of scores appropriateness or accuracy of the interpretations of test scores Types of tests Maximum performance tests Achievement tests Assess the knowledge or skills of an individual in a content domain in which they have received instruction e School exams Aptitude tests Designed to measure the cognitive skills abilities and knowledge that an individual has accumulated as the result of overall life experiences e SAT and ACT Objective vs subjective tests Objective tests less disagreement in how it is graded e Truefalse multiplechoice questions Subjective tests different graders gt different scores e Essay questions openended questions debates Speed vs power tests Speed tests performance only reflects differences in the speed of performance how much you can do in a certain amount of time Power tests performance reflects difficulty of the items the test taker is able to answer correctly le GRE and SAT Typical response tests Objective tests Use items that are not influenced by the subjective judgment of the person scoring the test Projective tests Presentation of unstructured or ambiguous material that elicits an almost infinite range of responses gt requires subjectivity Normreferenced scores Interpretation is relative to other people e Percentile ranks Criterionreferenced scores Interpretation is absolute Ie Percent correct on an exam Assumptions of Psychological Assessment 1 NQQPFDN 9 Psychological constructs exist Psychological constructs can be measured Measurement is not perfect There are different ways to measure a construct All procedures have strengths and weaknesses Multiple sources of information should be part of the process Performance on tests can be generalized Assessment can provide information Assessments can be fair 10 Assessments can benefit individuals and society Why use tests people are not good atjudging others Tests provide objective information that helps us make better decisions Common Applications of Psychological Assessments diagnosis Treatment planning and effectiveness Instructional planning Selection Placement Classification Selfunderstanding Evaluation Licensing Program evaluation Scientific method Participants in the assessment process people who develop tests People who use tests People who take tests Psychological Assessment in the 21st Century computerized adaptive testing CAT Ie GRE Other technological applications Ie Flight simulator Authentic assessments Ie Audits by the IRS art portfolios Health care delivery systems Highstakes assessment Ie New York State regents exams


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