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Political Science 41A Intro to International Relations Week Four Notes

by: Joyce Nguy

Political Science 41A Intro to International Relations Week Four Notes Pol Sci 41A

Marketplace > University of California - Irvine > Political Science > Pol Sci 41A > Political Science 41A Intro to International Relations Week Four Notes
Joyce Nguy
GPA 3.82

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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joyce Nguy on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pol Sci 41A at University of California - Irvine taught by HARDT, H in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see INTRO INTL RELATNS in Political Science at University of California - Irvine.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
1/26/16    Int Relations   Global and Regional Governance     1. Realist perspective on Foreign policy   a. classical realists: states are unitary, rational, self interested.   i. nation interests are resources, security, SURVIVAL  b. foreign policy tools: military power   c. power matters (classical) … or security matters (neorealist)   d. best policy?   e. rationally maximize state benefits and minimize risks   f. defensive realists ­ build up power in order to be able to defend against attack.  Israel vs Egypt   2. liberal perspective on foreign policy   a. liberal internationalism: Kantian view   b. national interests are to maximize cooperation (league of nations, united nations)   c. fopo tools: trading ­ soft power­ diplomacy   d. ethical concerns and international law matters  3. constructivist perspective on fopo   a. constructivism: normative context changes over time   b. national interests are ­ internal reform, ​ defined in the context of internationally  held norms and an understanding of what is good and appropriate   i. ex: in cold war, in internationalist context,  c. fopo tools   d. norms matters  e. best policy? it depends!   4. united nations   a. most common international relations   b. end of world war 2   c. addresses failure from league of nations   i. failures   1. main actors were not involved   2. had to have a unanimous vote ­ every state has veto power   3. incapable of acting ­ couldn’t implement anything   d. during cold war   i. united nations couldn’t do anything   ii. because of two hegemons   e. post cold war   i. US became head honcho of united nations   5. function and structure   a. general assembly  i. parliamentary body   ii. where every recognized state has a seat   iii. pass legislations and resolutions addressing a ton of shit   iv. don’t have power to implement things that requires of action  ­ they can  encourage, make suggestions to security council, but kind of like league  of nations   v. every single nation gets to be heard   b. economic and social council   i. implement economic policy of united nations   ii. still subject to regulation by general assembly   iii. coordinate with world bank world trade organizations as well as NGOs   c. trusteeship council   i. as of 1990s no longer needed  ii. help decolonize countries as somalia and east timor and make them their  own sovereign entities   d. security council (UNSC)  i. 15 members ­ 5 permanent members and ten rotating members voted for  by general assembly   ii. perm five ­ China, France, US, Britain, Russia   1. have power of veto ­ single no go from one of the big five means  the resolution does not pass  2. if all abstain from voting, any thing can pass with a vote of 9 of 15  members   iii. only body that can pass binding resolutions   1. it means it has to happen  e. international court of justice (ICJ)  i. not every state in the world is in this  ii. citizens cannot go to ICJ  iii. states can sue other states and represent citizens  iv. one of international courts  6. secretariat  a.  9000 administrative staff  7. foreign policy tools   a. carrots   i. public diplomacy   ii. humanitarian assistance   iii. foreign aid  iv. military aid   v. positive reinforcement  b. sticks   i. economic sanctions   ii. diplomatic sanctions   iii. threat of use of force (coercion)   iv. negative reinforcement   8. international law: overview   a. institution: a set of rules and norms   b. international law   i. an international institution that states created   9. international law: how?   a. mechanism for establishing it= multilateral diplomacy   b. but how is international law enforced?   i. realist: military force, launch missiles  ii. liberal: diplomatic negotiations  iii. constructivist: rely on common norms and utilize those to your advantage  to get another country to comply   c. criticisms   i. founded on western values and ideas   ii. others?   10. international law: the nitty gritty   a. customary international law ­ constructivist, laws can emerge from norm policies   i. if someone isn’t able to fight, you should not kill them   b. codified international law   i. geneva convention (conventions, treaties)   ii. bilateral agreements between states   iii. multilateral treaties among states (NAFTA)   iv. resolutions   c. writing of scholars   11. international law: the subjects   a. pre WWll: only states, treaties and resolutions dealt with states   b. Post WWll: development of a system that can deal with individuals   c. important moments   i. Nuremborg trials   ii. international tribunal for the former yugoslavia   12. international law: case study ­ international humanitarian law   a. humanitarian law­ innately tied to times of conflict ­ war, military action, this  comes into play   i. how do you treat civilians during war, etc.   b. international human rights law   i. how should states deal with civilian populations, asylum seekers   13. humanitarian law origins   a. little if any regulations befor 19th century   b. old testament   c. mercy and non­combatants   d. islamic code of conduct   e. women and children, those not fighting   f. exceptions: those who refuse to convert or pay a tax  g. american civil war (lieber war)   h. battle of solferino (modern day italy)   i. france and sardinia vs austria   ii. 4700 killed   iii. 22700 wounded   iv. henry dunant ­ wrote “a memory of solferino”   v. international community of the red cross   i. geneva convention 1­ addresses how you treat wounded, etc.   i. liberties ­ minimum standard treatment for all persons   1. prohibition of   a. wanton violence   b. taking hostages  c. humiliation and degrading treatment   d. trial   ii. rights   1. provides for:   a. treatment of a person’s mind and spirit  b. economic rights   c. social rights  d. religious rights  j. geneva convention 2 ­ maritime   i. a ship must retrieve and save as many of the opposing sides soldiers  once they sink a ship   k. impact of ww2 ­ 3 and 4   i. prisoners of war  ii. civilian populations   l. Hague conventions of 1899 and 1907 concerning “war proper”   i. in general   1. no use of dum dum bullets   2. torture   3. the use of poison gas   ii. ramifications   1. set up norms and rules we expect other countries to abide by      1/28/16    Regional Organizations and Nongovernmental Actors     1. local NGO  a. NGO where activities take place in the same place where the headquarters are ­  in the same country they’re trying to reform   b. can be local NGO that helps ensure farmers are getting clean water ­  environmental, health related   2. international NGO   a. difference between international organizations ­ organizations are made of  states, NGOs do not represent states  i. the people making the decisions in the NGO are individuals who are not  states   ii. similar to companies   b. non­profit different from a company   i. similar to international NGO and MNC (money driven)  3. regional organization   a. comprised of states among the same area ‘  b. ex:   i. european union   ii. african union   c. regional organizations have an option to be a part of the UN charter (fit with  norms), or not  d. there IS a legal framework, but can be global actors.   e. particular type of international organization   f. regional cooperation (relative to global)   i. advantages   1. countries that are in regional organizations have a shared  background   2. sense of identity   3. because common interests, they can get things done and  intervene, unlike the UN where there is gridlock   ii. disadvantages   1. may not be a completely neutral party   a. ex: african union. has conflict management capacities­  peacekeeping. one of the problems is that when you send  african american peacekeepers to another country, the  people might be a part of that country, so they cannot be a  third party   4. european organizations   a. ex: LAS (middle east and north africa)   i. League of Arab States   1. want countries to figure out crap in the org and not on the  battlefield   5. each organization has their own version of a security council   a. has its own political body that is the most important political body in the  organization  i. ex: African Union   1. every country in the continent of Africa is represented in the  headquarters of the African Union except Morocco   6. a lot of organizations engage in the same activities  a. involve multiple countries coming together   7. origins of each of these organizations   a. in african union, created after the end of colonialism (era of independence).  states finally gaining independence from european countries, and the most  important thing to them is that the carving out of borders is never going to  happen, SOVEREIGNTY   b. to assure one another’s t ​erritorial integrity   c. founded on principle of NON­INTERVENTION   d. intervening in somalia ­ subsequently, african union had a series of international  agreements and there were specific conditions under which it would be legitimate  for african union countries to come together and intervene (like crimes against  humanity, genocide)   e. goal of african union ­ promote peace on the continent ­ so they do peacekeeping   f. EUROPEAN UNION ­ started off as a group of countries interested in integrating  coal and steel industries ­ ECONOMIC INTEGRATION (tie our economies  together so states are dependent, SO WE CAN PREVENT A THIRD WORLD  WAR)   i. have their own currency   ii. have own set of laws   1. really unusual ­ ex: california has state laws and then there’s  federal law­ federal law trumps state laws  2. their set of laws trump state law at countries   3. competition policy ­ EU trumps that   4. all related to economic laws   iii. even though there are EU laws and integration (supranational level),  except for security and defense. they are purely intergovernmental (states  agree to go have peacekeeping or sending troops, not up to EU)   g. OAS   i. a history of US support and US interventionism   ii. United move toward democracy and interstate cooperation  iii. origin ­ after colonialism   iv. democracy promotion ­ election monitoring  v. americas  h. OSCE   i. arms control   ii. election monitoring   iii. gender equality   iv. border control   v. started during the cold war ­ dialogue from one side of the iron curtain to  the other (western states communicate with the eastern)   vi. aimed to reduce tensions 2         


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