Feminist Art History_Week 3_Exam 1_Notes
Feminist Art History_Week 3_Exam 1_Notes AHS 265-1
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by kmschemmel on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AHS 265-1 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Natalie Phillips in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Feminist Art History in Art at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Feminist Art History WEEK 3 Where we left of from Week 2: Important female pharaohs and regents - King Hatshepsut o She was pharaoh, in which came with all the power that is associated with it o Thutmose II- Hatshepsut’s husband o Thutmose III- Hatshepsut’s stepson When Hatshepsut married Thutmose II (who had a son-Thutmose II) she gave him her power to be pharaoh. After, he died she had to make the decision of whether or not to keep the power of pharaoh or to pass it down to her step son who was only 6 years old at the time Hatshepsut did not want to give that kind of power to a child so she kept it for herself. Later on, Thutmose III was upset that he was not given the power he thought was rightfully his when he was younger and he started some things due to this, but Hatshepsut decided to just keep the power for herself. - Funerary Temple of King Hatshepsut by Senmut (architect) Monday 25 o Hatshepsut did have a daughter. Senmut was very important to her and that is why he is honored as the architect and remembered. o Back in the day, it would have gardens and greenery- which is hard for it is located in the desert-shows the power she has. o The color of it blended in with the cliff-side due to the stone they used. o Temple was to show off her power and seems like she is trying to art to actively put off the naysayers. Uses the art in a very interesting way to legitimize her power and role. o The Expedition to Punt A place in Africa (south of Egypt) in which had a lot of resources. She made relief images throughout her temple showing images of her important historical moments. Usually the body types are very idealized, but in this imagery it is very differently done- her proportions are done more precise and it was more realistic. They tried to show her how she truly looked, but also incorporate resemblance of power through it. o Images of Hatshepsut References/depicts herself as a man through her art (images) but she is clearly a women. o Hatshepsut with Offering Jars Shown with traditional symbols of power. 1. Nimes headdress: usually only men wore 2. Uraeus: on top of headdress Crook and Flail: like having a staff as a king- shows phoronic power False beard: men usually wore a fake beard, and Hatshepsut adopted this symbol as a women too She used these symbols to try to keep up these traditions, and to legitimize the rain that she had o Hathor: women who is usually shown through the imagery of a cow. Hatshepsut shows herself with Hathor through a very interesting relationship (mother daughter type thing) Sometimes shown together, or just Hathor herself, or Hathor as a cow or just as a human with horns, etc. o Hathor Suckling Hatshepsut: Hathor is very large in the image (cow goddess) Some say that the god Amun is depicted under Hathors’ head (but weird, because then would depict that Hathor is better and more powerful than Ra. Hatshepsut is drinking from the goddess Hathor (the cow): 1. Receiving power directly from Hathor 2. Saying that she is the daughter of Hathor, a direct descendant of a god. o Hathor Licking the Hand of Hatshepsut Hierarchal scale: the bigger the figure is the more important/powerful you are. In this image the scale is reversed: Hathor is shown quite smaller than Hatshepsut. She is descendant of Hathor, but at the same time Hathor respects and follows Hatshepsut o Once Hatshepsut’s step son received the power of pharaoh he was still sour of her having the power of pharaoh before him, and destroyed some of the images of Hatshepsut o Deface image of Hatshepsut: The figure of Hatshepsut’s’ face was chipped away This was done to quite a few of her depictions to show that he was in power now and not her, but not all of them were defaced for this would be considered as obliterating her from existence and from the after life o Queen Nefertiti: Thought to be a Co-region. She was a queen but her husband also had power along with her o Bust of Nefertiti: Sculpture of her, from neck up. Was found in a sculptures workshop as was not completed, ex. Her eye Nefertiti’s sun court: every surface was carved with exclusively female figures She was married to a very powerful and famous pharaoh: Akhenaten (co-regents); he was very powerful for he converted them to monotheism: only sun god was worshipped rather than others along with it o Portrait of Akhenaten Amarna Period: During this period, Akhenaten and Nefertiti changed everything (revolutionary) He does not fit the idealized body figure. Thought he had Marfin’s syndrome: tend to be tall and lanky, elongated features, and sometimes larger hips, chest, etc. (womanly if a male); but then eventually every o Akhenaten, Nefertiti and Daughters After a while though, all the figures started to get the imagery of the Marfin’s syndrome imagery Changed the style of imagery- more curvy lines, etc. o Monotheism: Akhenaten changed Akhenaten had a religious vision where there are no other gods but the sun god, Amen. He changes the capital and role of power- got rid of priest, etc. because their god didn’t even exist. Changes art, and image of the pharaoh from stiff and idealized to a more playful and relatable image o Maybe to make pharaoh more assessable to them; or to try to build/expand their empire- more Egyptians to rule, etc. through the depiction of family Changes his name from being named after Amen to being named after Aton o Akhenaten “The Criminal” He was later considered the criminal and his imagery was defaced just like Hatshepsut’s, for his opposed crimes Ancient Greece 10 -1 centuries BC - Thought of as the golden age; and where Socrates and Aristotle existed - Ancient Athens o Considered Golden Age, location of Ancient Greece o Was not a golden age for women; they were not acknowledged at all, had a slue amount of restrictions on what they could/couldn’t do, etc. Were inferior during this age- quite “invisible”- due to restrictions = in home most of the time o Misogynistic culture: discriminated against women, seen as less than men o Greek domestic life: Women defined to the home, not allowed outdoors unless for very specific task Where not even allowed in certain parts of their homes Andron vs. Gynaeceum Gynaeceum was for women o For their household duties Andron was for the men o A lot more fun happened here o No women allowed in, except prostitutes Women at the Well (Lysistrata by Aristophenes) Women were allowed to go outside to get water- the one time women could interact with one another They used this to gain some amount of power here o Wanted to stop the war between Athens and Sparta and therefore they decided on a sex strike with their husbands o The Symposium (took place in the Andron) Gather around together and drink wine (watered down, so wouldn’t get drunk fast) Started out as an intellectual event, but would eventually turn into orgies’ Wednesday 27 Only guest or upper class men could attend this event Women couldn’t attend this Greek cultural event Only women whom were prostitutes were let in Along with young men= sexual reasons Hetairai: women at these events in which are there as ornaments and sexual creatures (strictly business) Had sandals that had the saying “follow me” in Greek engraved on the bottom Relationships between older men and younger men was very important in the Greek culture- way the young men were welcomed into the Greek society Then when they grew up into men, they would then get married have a relationship with a women Kottabos: a game at this event where one would flick their last drop of wine and whomever it landed on, they would be their sexual partner for that night o Greek Sculpture: Only men were visible in Greek society (public). Therefore the majority of Greek sculpture depicted men Sculptures portrayed nude male bodies whom were usually muscular = competed in Olympics in the nude o Women in Greek Mythology: Place were women were represented Some of the male gods were relatable (human first then turned into a god) For example: Herakles. They had role models that were realistic The women however, were represented in a “black and white” way They had 2 role models: o Athena: goddess of military victory and wisdom o Aphrodite: goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and external youth In result, women were depicted as either a virgin or a whore. Their role models were not realistic to the actual women qualities of Greek society. Thus, leaving women of Greek society with no grace face/ realistic role model to follow Medusa: a women figure whom was depicted as a monster, a Gorgon, and was generally described as a winged human female with a hideous face and living venomous snakes in place of her hair. The gazers on her face would then turn men whom looked at her to stone. o She was considered a monster because her gaze would turn men into stone; meaning she would kill men in order to take over the male power o This left women to be seen as monster who would/will take over male power Amazons: a member of a legendary race of female warriors o Courageous and physically powerful women o Exhibit manly vigor and therefore they were seen as a threat to Greek society (and men); and were thought to be imitating men o Thus, they were always depicted where they were being defeated: to give off one message: Behave like an Amazon and you will be overcome. Reading: Christine Mitchell Havelock, “Mourners on Greek Vases: Remarks on the Social History of Women” - She saw that the Greek society had limitations on women but wanted to explore/ discuss what they could do within these restrictions - “It is now generally…to be envied” 45 - “Compared to a man… without identity” 45 o Meaning that women were not their own person, instead they were objects/ property - “She had no autonomy…or guardian” ? 46 o Meaning that women were always given a label (wife, daughter, etc.) o They were always in terms of a relationship label to a man - Menkaure and Kham. - Hatshepsut with offering Jars o She started to contrast her to show what/how women could do more. - One important role for women in Greek Society? o They were important to the Greek Society in orders of serving as professional mourners at funerals o This was the one place in which they were accepted and wanted. o These professional mourners (women) were hired for funerals o The Greek Lament: The women would scream, tear their hair out, and cry in lament (mourning) Women were considered very good at this “job” and thus it was their assigned role in Greek society However, this role in their society started a trend Women were seen as emotional, etc. and thus also starting a stereotype for women Even though the women were seen as this, they were truly respected due to this being a important ritual in Greek culture o “Women were and are…functional meaning” 52 Meaning that these women were assigned the role of mourners in their culture but then the characteristic they had portray for the job became a stereotype towards women. - The Dipylon Amphora o Amphora holds water They would place it next to grave in the ground and put wine/water in it as an offering to the dead. The wine/water would then slowly drain into the ground. o The imagery of the vase had a very odd simplicity of a funerary scene. Various offerings (sacrificed animals), professional mourners, “casket”-depiction of dead with covering, etc. Renaissance Women (renaissance= rebirth) - Renaissance 15-16 century - Things stayed pretty much the same from Ancient Greece until the Renaissance- thus why we are skipping the time periods between these two cultures. - The women in medieval period were ok and had some rights, but now they are getting suppressed again because the people of the Renaissance are using Greek society as a model and believe that women are inferior. - Thus, leading to women in the Renaissance having very few rights - Role of Women in Renaissance: o Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus o Sandro Botticelli, La Prima Vera A painting that had a very didactic message It told women what to do. In other words it showed the role of a women as a wife, etc. Lillian Zirpolo, “Botticelli’s Primavera (additional text in book) The Medici’s: the bride The painting was to be read from right to left in order to learn the lessons to becoming a good wife. Lessons: Zephyr, Chloris, Flora Zephyr was the god of wind Chloris was a wood nymph who was a wild, untamed and unmarried woman Zephyr abducts Chloris and rapes her and then marries her. Chloris then turned into this beautiful and graceful (perfect) women = Flora o They are telling women that marriage turns you into this type of women (Flora) so as a woman you want to get married. o In the Renaissance, if a women were to be raped they were then expected (would want ) to marry the guy whom raped them, because otherwise they were considered damaged property. If they did not get married to him, their father may have to sell them for a very cheap amount and to most likely a very unfitting male for them. o Venus/springtime She teaches the women the virtues of love and beauty Her son Cupid is depicted above her head and is shown shooting at the Three Graces in which are to the left of her. o The Three Graces Lesson from them is to be graceful (young virgin): be like the Medici bride The fruit and flowers surrounding them symbolize fertility, etc. o Mercury: The Medici groom Picking fruit from a tree= fertility It was important for women to learn these lessons because if they do not get married, there is no way for them to sustain for themselves. The Gaze (reading): - Various and varied meanings of the term/phrase “Gaze” - The original term comes from Jacques Lacan o Follower of Freud o Mirror stage: when a child is with their parent and then look into a mirror and see that they are a different entity than their parents Notice themselves as a separate body/individual o The Gaze is a power: whoever holds the gaze has the power o The idea of vision/eye contact was critical o Women were often denied access to the power of “the gaze”, etc. o Gazing vs. looking/glimpsing/glancing/peeking, etc. Gazing is more powerful- engaging, deep Associated with power and meaning whereas the other terms are more associated with indecisiveness and non-confident o Power (gaze in paintings) Medusa: she flaunted this power of the gaze Was killed/resented because of this Subject vs. Object Objects: inactive (still-life) Subjects: person (portrait) Can have both: object with a guy gazing at the viewer Some subjects can be portrayed as objects too o Mostly women o Shown not facing the viewer (no gaze), no personality, shown as a sexual objet rather than a real person o Sometimes can still be objectified even though they are facing the viewer, by they are portrayed as flirtatious look rather than a powerful look = sexual object yet Artemisia Gentileschi, Self Portrait o Portrays herself as a subject rather than object o Makes direct eye contact, shows personality, etc. Friday 29 The Gaze: How is power constructed through the act of looking? How the Gaze in constructed in a painting: - 3 main types of relationships: o 1. Subject >>>>> Object Ex. Gerome, Slave Auction: We, the viewer, have the power of the gaze. The women here is an object especially due to she is being sold In the space represented here, the women is covering her eyes (denied access to vision), everyone in the crowd are lit up (are buying her- gazing at her), the women’s body is also lit up. The slaves in the background are in the shadow to where you can’t see them as well as the crowd, thus they are denied access to see as well. As the viewer, we are with the crowd, and thus have the power of gaze over the woman whom is being sold. o 2. Viewer >>>>Object Edgar Degas, The Tub As the viewer, it is as if we are “peeking” on her. (Male viewer in mind when made) Barbara Kruger. Your Gaze Hits the Side of my Face As viewer, your gaze hits the side of her face = she cannot interact with your gaze o 3. Subject > >>viewer (who becomes an object) Albrecht Durer, Self-Portrait His gaze, looking at the viewer, is really powerful and is almost pierceful. He is looking at us dead on and almost looks confrontation and arrogance. Salvador Dali, Portrait Purposefully powerful looking gaze The Mona Lisa, Leonardo He gave her the power of the gaze- not objectified - The Gaze and Knowledge o The way that you see the world is often shaped by the way that we see things and the amount of access we have to vision, etc. o Thomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic: The women in the painting is hiding her eyes and doesn’t want to see what they are doing The Dr. is lit up= deals with a power relationship over the students= knowledgeable Patricia Simons, “Women in Frames: The Gaze, the Eye, the Profile in Renaissance Portraiture” (reading) o “In this paper, profile portraits…. neutral images” 40 Sometimes we think of portraiture as a likeness and nothing more, but hey are composed and constructed and in some ways as didactic images- relationships between figures, about that time/age, etc. Ex. Jan Van Eyeck, self-portrait Ex. Ghirlandaio, Portrait of Giovanna Tornabuoni: A profile portrait Contrary to how you would see women in society- special occasion clothing- do not wear in public due to it would draw to much attention to them Was incredibly standard for women representation o They were always facing the same way, no shading on them-flattened out, not facing the viewer (no gaze), o “They are inactive objects gazing elsewhere decorously….” 44? o Male figures were represented as more approachable and powerful whereas the women were represented as an object- manikin like; her clothes and the other objects in the composition are actually almost more realistic Purpose of these profiles was not to show/represent the women but rather the property/possessions of their husband. Show of the luxury objects their husband has/given them= showing off. The portrait tells us nothing about Giovanna o “Her very existence and definition...outward appearance” 42 Only way could represent themselves was to be good wives, etc. o “A young Florentine…all other men” 44 Always defined not as her own individual person but rather in a way as in relationship with her husband. o Piero Della Francesca, Federigo de Montefeltro He was always shown on the side- he didn’t want people to see the wound on his face Was an exception of the side portrait with still showing power (Not the same as women’s representation) o Rogier Van Der Weyden, Portrait of a Lady More 3 dimensional, and shadowing/personality, yet still no eye contact Actually showing a portrait about the women rather than just shown as an object Not invited to look at her body- has an object; she actually looks like she is in thought, etc. Women Artist of the Renaissance - Sofonisba Anguissola o She represented herself very differently than other men were representing other women o She was on artist that was rediscovered o She is written about by Giorgio Vasari’s in” Vasari’s live of the artists” He is kind of fascinated by her, but with a weird not exactly positive representation. “But Sofonisba of Cremona, the daughter of Amilcare Anguissola…on her own has painted some rare and beautiful paintings.” (Giorgio Vasari) She is defined as part of her identity is with whom she is related to. o She had the nerve to ask Michelangelo for help o Sofonisba Anguissola and Michelangelo: Sent him a picture of a laughing girl Was quite impressed, but wanted to see more He asked for a painting of a weeping boy Asked for this, because this emotion tends to be harder to depict Sofonisba Anguissola, Child Bitten by a Crab o Turns his assignment into something more o Michelangelo was again impressed and teaches her some more o He was the reason why she became such a great artist- because of the male artist relationship that got her out there and to learn more o “Invenzione”: tends/is a characteristic that is applied just to men (masculine trait) Michelangelo said that Sofonisba’s Child Bitten by a Crab was Invenzione—so she had a lot of talent and was compared to the male talent o Caravaggio, Boy Bitten by a Lizard A painting influenced by Sofonisba’s painting o Sofonisba Anguissola, Game of Chess A lot of detail, clothes shows wealth but not so much to represent power. It depicts Sofonisba, her 2 “sisters”, and their servant The servant in the painting is shown with the least amount of power compared to the others The maid is looking at the youngest sister- the sister that has the least amount of power (but a step up from the servant), the youngest sister is looking at he middle sister in which is looking at the eldest sister (Sofonisba)- which gives her the most collective power and she is then looking at you, the viewer. With a very confident glance (seems to have an understanding of the power of looking) This shows the whole process of the Gaze, and how she understands the power relationship and also the viewer as part of it. o Portraiture: She became the court painter for Elizabeth of Valois in Madrid (wife of Phillip II) Helped you communicate with others- gave you status Steady source of commission An incredible and wanted job by artist Sofonisba Anguissola, Queen Elizabeth of Valois with a zibellino An example of the work she did as a court painter She also did various self portraits (known as miniatures) Sofonisba Anguissola, Self-Portrait, 1559 (miniature)
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