Human Growth and Development Quiz Four Notes
Human Growth and Development Quiz Four Notes NURS 1430
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aliyah Becker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NURS 1430 at Saint Louis University taught by Dr. Nina Westhus and Janice Palmer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Human Growth and Development in Nursing and Health Sciences at Saint Louis University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Preschool Child When Does a Toddler Become a Preschool Child? Predominately verbal mode of getting along Easy body control Expanded imagination Nutritional Needs Same food groups as adults, smaller quantities 1250 – 1600 calories per day o 1000 calories + 100 extra per year Energy requirements = BMR 3 meals, 3 snacks Midmorning, midafternoon, evening snacks Growth rate slowing Interested environment / not interested eating Stomach larger / mouth muscles stronger Same food groups as adults Eating social significance Sense of taste well developed Fast food th Obesity > 95 percentile Food o Satisfy hunger and nutritional needs o Not – proof of love or reward for good behavior Exercise Play Time and space Comfortable clothing Flexible shoes May play to fatigue o Adults need to insert rest periods 60 minutes of active exercise Rest / Sleep 3 years = not always sleep at nap 4 years = resists naps, needs quiet time 5 years = unlikely to nap Sleep Patterns By age 5, most US children o Average about 11 hours sleep a night o Give up naps Bedtime varies among cultures Sleep Disturbances Night terrors o Abrupt awakening; extremely frightened (not really awake, doesn’t remember) Nightmares o Common (up late, heavy meal, overexcitement, terror story) Walking and Talking o Fairly common o Accidental activation of brain’s motor control Bed wetting (enuresis) o About 10 – 15% of 5 year olds Sleep Young Preschooler = 12 hours Older Preschooler = 11 hours Motor Skills Gross o Involves large muscle groups o Jumping and running Fine o Using handeye and small muscle coordination o Buttoning a shirt, drawing pictures Hand Control 3 year old o Reach for objects with their preferred hand o Stack blocks, build with blocks o Dresses self completely (simple items) except for tying shoes o Handle large zippers o Use chopsticks or spoon somewhat effectively o Smears and daubs paint o Draws, paints o Copies a circle or cross 4 year old o Use of hands, fingers, thumbs, grasping schemas, become better integrated and coordinated with other motor, verbal, and perceptual behaviors o (automaticity) carry out a dinner conversation while manipulating a fork or other eating utensil o Increasingly competent taking care of themselves and carrying out daily activities o Still difficulty with precise fine motor movements (CNS = pruning, myelination, child’s limited patience, short attention span) o Draws shaped and dimple figures o Copies square 5 year old o Dresses and undresses self without assistance o Fasten and unfasten items o Manages buttons and zippers; may tie shoelaces o Uses eating utensils and tools correctly o Copies triangle or diamond Locomotion 3 year old o Legs stay closer together walking and running o No longer have to pay attention to what legs and feet are doing o Automaticity: ability to perform motor behaviors without consciously thinking about them o Runs, turns, stops more smoothly than before o Ankles and wrists not as flexible as will be by 4 or 5 years o Climbs stairs alternating feet o Jumps from low step 4 year old o Runs easily with coordination o Can vary rhythm of running o Skips clumsily o Hops 1 foot o Greater strength, endurance, and coordination 5 year old o Runs with skill, speed, and agility, and plays games simultaneously o Walks a balance beam o Jumps from 3 4 steps o Hops and skips, alternating feet o Some can throw a ball overhand and catch a large ball o Hops and skips smoothly, alternating feet o Stand on 1 foot Language Development 3 years = simple sentences 4 years = talks incessantly while doing other activities 5 years = talks constantly Egocentrism Child cannot take the role of, or see the viewpoint of, another Events happen because of themselves Developmental Crisis (Erikson) Initiative vs. Guilt o Initiative Enjoyment of energy displayed in action, assertiveness, learning, increasing dependability, and ability to plan o Guilt Sense of defeatism, anger, feeling responsible for things that he or she is not really responsible for, feeling easily frightened from what he or she wants to do, feeling bad, shameful, and deserving punishment Cooperative Play Aware of other children Share common play experiences Able to communicate with them o Directly o Exchange information, feelings, and ideas Integrated and elaborative play Safety Accidents most common cause of death in Preschool Child o Motor vehicles o Drowning o Burns from fire or hot water o Poisonings Immunizations DTaP and IPV = between 4 and 6 years (prior to kindergarten) Varicella #2 = between 4 and 6 years MMR #2 = between 4 and 6 years Influenza = between 4 and 6 years (high risk) PPV (pneumococcal polys) = between 4 and 6 years (high risk) Irreducible Needs for Children: The Need For: Ongoing nurturing relationships Physical protection, safety, regulation Experiences tailored to individual differences Developmentally appropriate experiences Limit setting, structure, and expectations Stable, supportive communities and cultural continuity Protecting the future Parenting Styles Authoritarian o Demanding o Impose many rules o Expect instant obedience o Do not give reasons for rules Authoritative o Exert control o Demanding but responsive to and accepting of child Permissive o Accepting of a responsive to child o Rarely makes demands o Rarely exerts control indulgent Neglectful o Low in demand o Low control o Low in acceptance o Low in responsiveness o Uninvolved Intimidated o Lack ability to be firm with child o No control over child Secure o Confident in own childrearing o Accept self and child Guidance and Discipline Consistent, fair, and kind limits to feel secure Know parents care for and love him or her enough to provide protection Stop unsafe, hurtful behavior immediately Hold child’s arm gently and quietly say no Avoid spanking – teaches child ok to hit
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