Human Growth and Development Quiz Six Notes
Human Growth and Development Quiz Six Notes NURS 1430
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aliyah Becker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NURS 1430 at Saint Louis University taught by Dr. Nina Westhus and Janice Palmer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Human Growth and Development in Nursing and Health Sciences at Saint Louis University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Adolescence Times of Opportunities and Times of Risks Evaluation Decision making Commitment Carving out a place in the world Time of Transition 0 Between childhood and adulthood 0 Major physical cognitive and psychosocial changes lmportant to understand what is happening to teen physically A teens develop Don t all follow same pattern ll 19 or 20 years Puberty Process by which a person attains sexual maturity and ability to reproduce State of physical development Well before 10 years Where sexual reproduction is rst possible Adolescence and Puberty Adolescence 0 Developmental transition that involves physical cognitive emotional and social changes Puberty Process that leads to sexual maturity or fertility Adolescence as Social Construction 0 Concept is made up by culture 0 In traditional and preindustrial societies children entered the adult world when they matured physically or began a vocational apprenticeship Today adolescence is a global phenomenon Most places adolescence lasts longer and is less clear cut than in the past Window on the World Globalization of Adolescence Adolescence is no longer a Western phenomenon o In many nonWestern countries adolescent boys and girls live in separate worlds 0 Puberty heightens preparation for gender roles Cultural change is complex ll Body Systems PhysiologicPuberty Cascade of hormonal responses o Hypothalamus o GnRH LH and FSH Girls increase FSH menstruation Boys LH l testosterone and androstenedione Puberty o Adrenarche 0 Between ages 6 and 9 o Maturing of the adrenal glands 0 Production of androgens DHEA Gonadarche o Maturing of the sex organs 0 Girls ovaries increase estrogen 0 Boys testes increases androgens Sex Hormones o Androgens 0 Produce maletype characteristics 0 Estrogens 0 Produce feminine characteristics 0 Preparation of endometrium 0 Support implantation and growth of fertilized egg 0 Progesterone 0 Supports continued growth of endometrium Physical Changes of Puberty 0 Both males and females 0 Growth spurt o Pubic hair 0 Deeper voice 0 Muscular Puberty Onset 0 Girls 0 8 years 8 and 10 lasts 34 years 23 African American girls breast budding at 7 years 0 Boys 0 9 years 9 and 11 lasts 34 years Primary Sex Characteristics 0 Females o Ovaries Fallopian Tubes Uterus Vagina o Males o Testes Penis Scrotum Seminal Vesicles Prostate Gland Secondary Sex Characteristics 0 Females o Breasts Pelvis Changes 0 Males o Broad Shoulders Facial Hair Signs of Sexual Maturity Spermarche 0 First ejaculation o Nocturnal emission wet dream 0 Average at age 13 o Menarche 0 First menstruation rst period 0 Average at age 12 12 Pubarche Beginning development of certain secondary sex characteristics that precedes actual onset of physiologic puberty Spermatogenesis Production of spermatozoa Menstruation o Onset of menses o Menarche lst menstrual period In uences on and Effects of Timing of Puberty A decrease in average age of pubertal onset Possible explanations 0 Higher standard of livingbetter nutrition 0 Overweight 0 Relationship with father Pheromones lll Medical and Behavioral Assessment IV Early Physical Development A Principles 0 Asymmetrical o Nose lips ears grow before head 0 Weight likely gained prior to height increase Adolescent Growth Principle of Asynchronous Growth Progression of growth 0 Hands and feet out of proportion Grow larger hand strength increases 0 Males greater length Legs Arms Arms and legs are longer more gangly Chest and trunk lengthen greater should width broader B Growth Pattern Adolescent Growth Spurt o A rapid increase in height and weight muscle and bone growth 0 Typically lasts about two years 0 Results in common gawkiness 0 Teens become more concerned about their appearance Physical Characteristics 0 Females o 9 12 and 14 12 10 o Gain fat tissue 0 Males o 10 12 and 16 12 or 13 0 Lose fat tissue Muscle Physical Characteristics Girls growth spurt occurs two years earlier than boys Girls 1113 years taller heavier stronger Boys catch up and pass after growth spurt Girls full height at 15 Boys full height at 17 Adolescent Growth 0 Skeletal system grows faster than supporting muscles 0 Large muscles grow faster than small muscles Tend to be clumsy especially males Physical Growth Pre puberty Puberty Females Glands on face more active acne Hair growth underarms and genital area Enlarged and elevation of breast tissue tenderness Pelvis widens Broaden hip width Change in vaginal secretions Pre puberty Puberty Males Glands on face more active acne Changes in voice deepening and complexion Hair growth underarms face and pubic area Temporary breast enlargement Underarm and body sweating increases Changes in body odor Changes in body shape growth of body hair and muscle development First ejaculation of seminal uid Nocturnal emissions occurs Penis scrotum and testes enlarge Increases sensitivity to pressure on testes Change in color and texture of skin of scrotum Increased height and weight Males Shoulders wider Legs longer in relations to trunk Forearms longer relative to upper arms and height Nutrition Skeletal system grows faster than supporting muscles Large muscles grow faster than small muscles Tend to be clumsy especially males 0 0 DU US adolescents have less healthy diets than other industrialized countries 0 Fewer fruits and vegetables 0 More sweets chocolates junk food Obesity Overweight US teens are more likely to be overweight than their age mates in industrialized countries numbers tripled between 1980 and 2004 0 Average teen girls need 2200 calories per day 0 Average teen boy needs 2800 calories per day Body Image 0 How one believes one looks Concern most intense during adolescence 0 Pattern is more intense with females 0 Normal increase in girl s body fat 0 African American girls are more satis ed with their bodies than are white girls E Sleep Patterns Sleep Needs 0 Average sleep declines to less than eight hours at age 16 Adolescents need more sleep than when they were younger 0 Still many adolescents do not get enough sleep Sleep Patterns 0 Sleep deprivation among adolescents epidemic 0 Only 20 get recommended amount of sleep 0 Sleep deprivation o Sap motivation causes irritability 0 Concentration and school performance can suffer 0 Changes in circadian timing and melatonin may account for tendency to stay up late 0 School schedules are out of sync with biological rhythms o Tendency to be sleepy during the day and sleep in on weekends to make up forloss Does not make up for loss of sleep on school nights F Adolescents Brain Work in Progress 0 Dramatic changes in brain structure 0 Emotions 0 Judgment 0 Organization of behavior 0 Selfcontrol Adolescent Brain 0 A work in progress Immaturity of adolescents brain has led to questions of legal responsibility 0 Risk taking comes from interaction of two brain networks 0 Socioemotional network peer in uences 0 Cognitive Control network responses to stimuli 0 Not fully mature o Puberty growth spurt gray matter 0 Frontal lobes 0 Then pruning of gray matter 0 Continuing myelination of frontal lobes o Facilitates maturation of cognitive processing Two Major Brain Changes 0 Growth spurt o Chie y in frontal lobes o Reasoning judgment and impulse control 0 Gray matter growth 0 Continued myelination o Facilitates maturation of cognitive abilities V Cognitive Development Formal Operations Adolescent not only looks different but thinks differently o 11 or 12 15 years 0 Continues through adulthood Formal Operations 4th and Final Stage Cognitive structures reach maturity Quality of reasoning or thought is at maximum No further structural improvements in quality of reasoning Has potential to think as adult Constructs reasoning and thought to solve all classes of problems Changes in Thinking 0 Logical thinking now applied to possible as well as real 0 Ability to think about relationships among mentally constructed concepts emerges 0 Thinking even more logical and systematic than childhood Formal Operations Move beyond concrete experiences Think in abstract terms Think in more logical terms Not limited to actual concrete experiences as anchors for thought Conjure up make believe situations hypothetical possibilities abstract propositions and reason logically about them Develop images of ideal circumstances 0 Think about ideal parent 0 Compare ideal to own parent Entertain possibilities of future More systematic in developing hypotheses and test hypotheses in deductive manner Verbal problem solving ability Concrete operational thinker needs to see concrete elements 0 A B C o ABandBCthenAC Formal operations 0 Can solve this problem through verbal representation Increased ability to think about thought Differences between Concrete and Formal Operations Major difference 0 Greater range of applications and type of logical operations available to child with formal thought Concrete Operations 1 Tangible problems in the present 2 Content bound tied to available experiences 3 Deal with each problem in isolation Formal Operations Greater range depth and power of reasoning Hypothetical and verbally complex problems Hypothetical deductive reasoning o Adolescent have cognitive ability to develop hypotheses or best guesses about how to solve problems algebra Can systematically deduce or conclude best path to follow in solving equation No longer solve problems in trial and error fashion Alt BandBltCisAltCYes Verbal problem 0 Bob is left of Sam Sam is left of Bill Is Bob left of Bill Ability to reason about untrue hypotheses o If coal is white concreate operational child can t get past this Coal is not white 0 Formal operations can accept assumption Coal is white Hypothetical Deductive Reasoning Reasoning form premises to conclusions or from general to speci c Deducing conclusions from premises which are hypotheses Scienti c Inductive Reasoning o Reasoning from speci c facts to general conclusions 0 Colorless chemical liquid 0 Pendulum Re ective Abstraction o Mechanism of mental activity by which cognitive construction takes place 0 Knowledge is constructed from physical or mental actions on objects 0 Internal re ection can result in new knowledge Analogies re ective abstraction o Intuition beyond the observable construct new knowledge 0 Involves construction and comparison 0 Deal logically with all classes of problems 0 Reason about past present and future but also independent of past present and future Capable of introspection 0 Think about our thoughts and feelings as if they were objects gives rise to Adolescent egocentrism o Imaginary audience 0 Personal fable 0 Use theories and hypotheses to solve problems construct probability make decisions Adolescent Egocentrism Teens assumption 0 Are focus of everyone s attention 0 Own experiences thoughts and feelings are unique Imaginary Audience 0 Teens unjusti ed concern that they are focus of others attention Personal Fable 0 Teens exaggerated belief in their own uniqueness o No one has ever before had the same thoughts or feelings they are having Ex quotyou just don t know how it feels to be in love 0 Leads to feelings of invulnerability to risks and physical dangers 0 Bad things will not happen to me 0 Discount likelihood of accident if drive too fast Use several intellectual operations simultaneously and systematically Scienti c reasoning hypotheses building and testing Greater understanding of causation Logically derived conclusions validity independent of factual truth ability in logic is greater in concrete operations Implications for School Achievement Thought is Full of Idealism and Possibilities 0 Children think in concrete ways or in terms of what is real and limited Adolescents begin to engage in extended speculation about ideal characteristics 0 Qualities they desire in themselves and in others 0 Thus compare self with others In uence of Social Environment 0 Higher order thinking skills 0 Schools provide major setting for cognitive socialization 0 TV and other cultural in uences have impact on adolescents thinking processes and on which cognitive skills they value Language Development Adolescents can discuss abstractions 0 Love 0 Freedom 0 Justice 0 Frequently use such terms as 0 However 0 Otherwise 0 Therefore Estrogen Development of sexual organs Glandular tissues proliferate Development of breasts Uniting of epiphyses Broadening of pelvis Calcium and Phosphate retention Increase in total body protein stimulate growth Deposits of fat subq Female hair distribution Soft skin texture Sodium water calcium and phosphates retention Progesterone Promotes secretory changes in uterus and fallopian tubes Maintain pregnancy inhibiting ovulation Decreases uterine contractions Promote breast aIveoIi and breast development during pregnancy Enhances sodium chlorine and water reabsorption Catabolic effect on body proteins Normal menses Piagetian Cognitive Development Forma Operations 0 A capacity for abstract thought 0 A more exible way to manipulate information 0 Usually develops around age 11 0 Also has emotional implications Hypothetical Deductive Reasoning Problem solving skills Developing a hypothesis and an experiment to test it Imagining relationships systematically Piaget attributed acquiring this new skill to 0 Brain maturation 0 Expanding environmental opportunities Evaluating Piaget s Theory 0 Many late adolescents and adults around 13 are incapable of abstract thought Fails to capture the role of context of the situation 0 The theory does not fully consider the role of metacognition Vll Psychosocial Erikson A Developmental Crisis ldentity vs Role Confusion Identity an individual believes he or she is a speci c unique person he or she has emerged as an adult Identity Coherent conception of self made up of goals values and beliefs to which a person is solidly committed Erikson s Crisis of Identity vs Confusion 0 Identity coherent conception of self Struggle to become an adult with unique sense of self and role in society 1 Choice of occupation 2 Adoption of values to live by 3 Development of sexual identity Struggle to move from adolescence to emerging adult ldentity Formation 0 Results through synthesis of biopsychosocial characteristics from a number of sources for example earlier sex identity parents friends social class ethnic religious and occupational groups ldentity Diffusion Results if the adolescent fails to achieve a sense of identity Feels uncertain about self or place in the world Real Personal Identity 0 What person believes self to be Psychosocial Moratorium 0 Time out o Occurs in adolescence o A time to decidethink about what your values are in life Resolving Erikson s Identity Crisis 0 Successful resolution leads to delity 0 Feeling of belongingness to friends or family 0 Identi cation with a set of values 0 The danger is identity confusion 0 Although some degree of confusion is normal Marcia ldentity Status Crisis and Commitment 0 Identity achievement 0 Crisis leading to commitment Foreclosure 0 Commitment without crisis Moratorium 0 Crisis with no commitment yet 0 Identity diffusion o No commitment no crisis Identity Formation Gender Differences 0 Role of relationships 0 Do females develop a sense of self through forming relationships OR o Is identity a struggle for independence and connectedness regardless of gender SelfEsteem 0 Male selfesteem linked with individual success 0 Female selfesteem linked with connections to others Four Stages of Ethnic Identity 0 For many young people in minority groups race or ethnicity is central to identity formation 1 Diffuse 2 Foreclosed 3 Moratorium 4 Achieved Racial Ethnic Identity 1 Connectedness to one s racial ethnic group 2 Awareness of racism 3 Embedded achievement 0 Cultural Socialization parental practices that teach children about racial or ethnic heritage promote cultural customs and traditions and encourage cultural pride Sexuality Sexual Identity 0 See oneself as a sexual being Recognizing one s sexual orientation o Forming romantic or sexual attachments Adolescent Romantic Relationships 0 Contribute to development of intimacy and identity 0 Affects quality of relationship with parents and peers 0 Dating violence 0 Physical o Emotional 0 Sexual Sexuality Focus of consistent sexual romantic and affectionate interest 0 Homosexual persons of the same sex 0 Heterosexual persons of opposite sex 0 Bisexual persons of both sexes 0 Isolated experiences do not determine orientation Sexual Behavior 0 Average age at rst intercourse 0 Female 17 years 0 Males 16 years 0 Two major concerns 0 Sexually transmitted infections diseases 0 Not wanting to get or get a girl pregnant Factors Associated with Early Sex Early puberty Poverty Poor school performance History of sexual abuse Neglect Cultural or family patterns Perception of peer norms Relationships with Family 0 More time with peers than family 0 Look to family for secure base 0 Spread wings o Fundamental values stay more similar than most people realize s Adolescent Rebellion a Myth Stereotypes of adolescent rebellion o A time of emotional turmoil 0 Con ict within the family 0 Alienation from adult society 0 Reckless behavior 0 Rejection of adult values 0 Only one in ve teens ts this pattern Adolescent Use of Time US teens have a great deal of discretionary time Time with family members declines dramatically More time is spent alone and with opposite sex Weekend partying is common for older teens African American teens spend more time with family than white teens Adolescents and Family Con ict lndividuation adolescent s struggle for autonomy and personal identity 0 Most arguments over daytoday matters 0 Chores Schoolwork Dress Money Curfew Da ng Fnends OOOOOO Parent Styles and Parental Authority Parenting style authoritative Parental monitoring and adolescent s selfdisclosure Family structure Physiological autonomy Economic stress Adolescent and Parents 0 Spend part of time getting along 0 Share discoveries and fresh look at experiences 0 Exchanging banter 0 Talking over plans and problems 0 Enjoying each other company Some adolescents Grow up with essentially no con ict Adolescent Grow Away from Family 0 Home rooming house Chores executed strawboss convict relationships rather than shared work experience Room or Bathroom Refuge where they can 0 Study 0 Register own growth 0 Be in front of a mirror Can experiment with practice and perfect masks wear and styles and images want to perfect Mealtimes Opportunity for real exchanges with family Substantial Part of Time Adolescent Spends with Family Frustration Outrage Humiliation SuHenness Resentment Dramatic melodramatic despair Ambiguity and Ambivalence Not sure act like child or adult Repudiates childish self not with assurance or regret Feels selfcon dent up to moment confronts task of demonstrating competence Demands privileges but views corresponding responsibilities as onerous Parents point of view 0 Ability to bear responsibility as much as mark of maturity as is having paneges Adolescent point of view 0 Responsibilities imposed by adults 0 Degrading tokens of inferior status Parents 0 Think still child 0 Big enough to help out Older Adolescent Parents experience ambiguity o Uncertain where adolescent stands and how they should be treated Looks very much like adult and sometimes acts like one o Occasional slips and blunders betray child who lurks within 0 Older adolescent feels little ambiguity about grownup status Growth Ambivalence Shared by parents 0 Dual ambivalence parents and child are at war with each other about status and each side is at war with itself Older Adolescence Fear of failure 0 Adult privileges 0 Hold halfsensed terrors 0 Not incorporated into selfschema 0 Not sure whether can control them 0 Protest and grumble though feel secret relief when parents add weight of their authority to own uncertain controls Challenges to Parenting and Adolescent Maintaining Relationships 0 Home accepting and emotionally stable environment 0 Early adolescence 0 Stay involved with family activities and functions 0 Social ties and relationships outside family 0 Middle and late adolescence 0 Most severe changes occur in parentchild relationships 0 Dependency status to mutual affection equality and autonomy o Creates family turmoil con ict and ambivalence o Emancipation must be gradual 0 Parents 0 Increase adolescence responsibilities 0 Increase adolescence privileges o Adolescence wants to make independent decision yet wants nancial support food and safe sanctuary Parents careful not to grant instant adult status Need to be independent yet dependent Adolescent likes to battle for privilege better than likes the actual privilege itself Affection turned to adult outside of family Parents may believe they are no longer important to adolescent General Stake the tendency to interpret interactions from the view of the respective generation 0 Very difficult for parents 0 Want to show love and protect 0 Very difficult for teens o Domination outmoded values or lack of trust Communication 0 cut to a trickle Adolescents and Sibling teens are less close to siblings than to parents or peers 0 less in uenced by their siblings than when younger 0 become more distant from siblings throughout adolescence o sibling relations tend to re ect parents marital relationship and parentchild relations Adolescents Crowds and Cliques Groups serve several purposes 0 Help establish teen identity 0 Reinforce alliances 0 Makes it easier to make friendships within the same group Clique a structured group of friends 0 Become more common in adolescence Adolescent Friendships o More important than in any other life period c More reciprocal and stable than in childhood 0 Increased intimacy Adolescents choose friends similar in 0 Gender 0 Race ethnicity 0 Academic aptitude 0 Risk or problem behavior Research in Action Consequences of the Social Network Online social networks have changed how teens communicate Selfdisclosure is connected with quality of friendships Level of anonymity Potential bullying Research in Action Youth Violence Epidemic Possible in uences o Immature adolescent brain Ready access to guns in a culture that romanticizes gunplay Presence of gangs at school Childhood home environment Living in unstable neighborhoods Witnessing or being victims of neighborhood violence OOOOO Becoming a Delinquent 0 An interaction between in uences 0 Parental Authoritative parenting may protect against delinquency Shaping of prosocial or antisocial behavior Economic circumstances 0 Peers Similar in achievement and social tendencies 0 Community Collective efficacy how do neighbors support each other Preventing Delinquency Intervention Programs Offers family assistance and support Helps with interactions between home and school Create supportive parent networks Offer followup services and afterschool activities Prevent gang recruitment Offer adultguided support groups Relationships with Peers Peer Group Allegiance 0 Fads 0 Clothing 0 Food 0 Music 0 Jargon Parents 0 Role models for adulthood for adolescents 0 Foster health of family members Peer Group Friends of the same age In uence adolescent more than parents Intense loyalty Sense of acceptance belonging Learn how to behave Sense of immediacy the present In uence selfesteem and selfcon dence Provide sense of support Safe place to try out behavior Behavioral conformity Incorporate new ideas Peer Group Dialect Language that consists of coined terminology and of new or extended interpretations attached to traditional terms 0 Sense of belonging Used by adolescents meaning only for friendship group Kohlberg s Model Preconventional morality Conventional morality Postconventional or principled morality Preconventional Morality 26 years Moral reasoning based on fear of punishment or desire for reward 0 Stage 1 good behavior based on desire to avoid punishment 0 Stage 2 whatever satis es one s own needs Conventional Morality 712 years Moral reasoning based on opinions of others or formal laws 0 Stage 3 act the way others will approve of 0 Stage 4 doing one s duty as prescribed by society s laws Postconventional or Principled Morality gt12 years Moral reasoning based on abstract principles underlying right and wrong 0 Stage 5 meet one s obligation to help keep society running smoothly Safety 0 Exercise and rest balanced Above rather than health habits Teens low physical activity 0 Cigarette smoking Marijuana use Less fruits and vegetables More TV computer Failure to wear seatbelt Lower academic performance OOOOO Safety Risks Cigarettes alcohol and drug experimentation Sexual experimentation Careless driving distracting Not wearing helmets Stranger internet Adolescent Immunizations Catch up immunizations Hepatitis B All children 0 18 years Tdap booster to adolescent 1112 years if 5 years Since last dose DTaPDTP booster every 10 years with Td Give one time Tdap to adolescent If never received Tdap vaccinate all females through 26 years Not previously vaccinated Varicella give to adolescent with history only 1 dose In uenza 5 years and older if have risk factor Meningococcal coniugate IMCV4 high school entry college freshman living in dorms Polvsaccharide MPSV4 adolescents who want to decrease the risk of meningococcal disease Dental Care Twice yearly check ups Theories of Stress and Crisis Stress and crises 0 Part of development throughout life 0 Affect health 0 Understanding of these is essential for health promotion assessment and interventions Theory of stress and general adaptation syndrome 0 Selye o Physiologic adaptive response to stress 0 Everyday wear and tear on the person 0 Further study Has emotional cognitive and social effects Crisis theory 0 Formulated to explain how people respond psychologically and behaviorally when they cannot cope adequately with stressors Explain a range of responses 0 Stress always occurs in crisis 0 Not every stressful event is a crisis Physical and emotional state always present in the person In uenced by environmental psychological and social factors Uniquely perceived by the person and identi ed in response When environmental change or threat occurs internally or externally and person must respond Survived depends on mediation between 0 Environmental demands and adaptive capacities Stressors accompany a number of stimuli 0 Physical Chemical Microbiologic Physiologic Psychological Developmental Sociocultural 0 Environmental Stressors stress agents physical chemical microbial physiological psychological developmental sociocultural environmental in text and add spiritual stressors Eustress normal stress that is adapted to and promotes normal human development and selfactualization Remember babies need stress on bones muscles to grow Daily hassles repeated and chronic strains of everyday life Distress negative noxious unpleasant and damaging Primary response behavioral Impact is cumulative Circumstances alter the impact or harm done by stressors People are adaptable Physiological or social factors can ease or exaggerate Conditioning is important protection Response to stress 0 Local Adaptation Response In ammatory response like to a bee sting mosquito bite cut or injury 0 General Adaptation Response De nes stress as wear and tear on the body so this theory has both physiological and psychological implications the whole body reaction to stress Selye built on the work of physiologists and physicians concerning homeostasis or Homeodynamics a more common term now rather than homeostasis where Homeodynamics means dynamic equilibrium or a stable state 0 Three stages of GAS Alarm ight or ght increased heart rate increased oxygen to muscles to run or ght Resistance l a time of coping with the stressor adapting to the stressor Exhaustion if the person is unable to adapt or all the adaptive resources are used up or depleted OOOOOO Adolescents Mature understanding of death 0 Abstract thinking 0 Religious meaning 0 Afterlife o Forming identity 0 Dif cult time to cope with loss of loved one Adolescents Concept of Death 0 Mature concept of death 0 Tend to think will not die 0 Search for spiritual meaning of death Adolescents Reactions to Dying 0 Establishing identity who are death 0 Group acceptance and independence parental constraints 0 Serious crises 0 May feel isolated peers and unable to communicate parents Maturational crises acceptance body changes socialization and increase sexual impulses increase vulnerability Maximal control and independence Be honest Treat as mature individuals Respect needs for privacy solitude personal expressions of emotions anger sadness fear 0 Nurses role model these behaviors
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