Human Growth and Development Quiz Seven Notes
Human Growth and Development Quiz Seven Notes NURS 1430
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aliyah Becker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NURS 1430 at Saint Louis University taught by Dr. Nina Westhus and Janice Palmer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Human Growth and Development in Nursing and Health Sciences at Saint Louis University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
The Emerging and Young Adult Growth Increase in body size or changes in o Structure, Function, Complexity of body cell content, metabolic and biochemical processes up to some point of optimum maturity Types of Growth o Incremental Growth Maintaining excess in growth over normal daily losses E.g. increase in weight or height o Replacement Growth Normal refills of essential body components E.g. red blood cells lives 120 days Growth occurs by Hypertrophy o Increase in size of cellular structures Growth occurs by Hyperplasia o Increase in the number of cells Development Patterned Orderly Lifelong changes in o Structure o Thought o Feelings o Behavior Evolve as a result of o Maturation of physical or mental capacity o Experiences o Learning Results in new level of maturity and integration Developmental Task o Growth responsibility that arises at a certain time in the course of development o Successful achievement of which leads to satisfaction and success with later tasks Maturation An unfolding of the innate growth process The unfolding of a natural sequence of physical changes and behavior patterns, including readiness to master new activities Emergence of genetic potential for changes in form, structure, complexity, integration, organization, and function, physically and mentally No learning occurs unless the person is mature enough to be able to understand and change his or her behavior Biological Age Level of physical growth and development and how the body functions over time Psychological Age Persons perception of the aging process Social Age Refers to society’s expectations of the person at a specific age or stage Chronological Age Time since birth When Does Adulthood Start? In the United States, young adulthood is about 25-45Beh years Childhood and adolescence are the periods for growing up; adulthood is the time for settling down Relates more to sociocultural forces and expectation and the value and cognitive changes than to physical development For those who attend college, young adulthood tasks may be delayed until the mid-20s, or later Emerging Adulthood Three criteria most people use to define young adulthood 1. Accepting responsibility for oneself 2. Making independent decisions 3. Becoming financially independent Emerging Adulthood: young adults can figure out who they are and what they want to be The Emerging Adult Four Revolutions 1. Technology revolution (manufacturing technology) 2. Sexual revolution (sex before commitment; commitment delayed) 3. Women’s movement (female education; career) 4. Youth movement (prefer to prolong youth and delay adulthood) Teens and Media Common sense media Nationwide study of tweens and teens (8-18 years old) Teens (13-18 years old) Excluding media for school or homework o 8.56 total hours on media o While doing homework, 50% used social media o Boys prefer x-box / girls prefer Instagram o Listening to music and watching t/v “dominates media diet” o Majority of teens have smart phones (67%) Physical and Health Development All body systems are at the optimal level of function Peak / Maximum Status in mid 20s o Organ functioning o Reaction time o Strength o Motor skills o Sensorimotor coordination o Athletes tend to peak during young adulthood 23-27 – striated (voluntary muscles) such as biceps and quadriceps reach maximum strength Peak hand strength age 20 o Declines during young adulthood after that are usually only noticed when ill or taxed Pregnancy – longer to recover in 30s than in 20s Working multiple jobs – more difficult for 30 year old than 20 year old Musculoskeletal System Babies have 270 soft bones By age 20 – 25 years, most are fused together into 206 hard, permanent bones Skeletal growth is completed by age 25 or sooner o When the epiphyseal line calcifies and fuses with the main shaft of the long bones Vertebral column continues to grow until age 25 Males grow 10% taller than females (male hormones) With increasing age, the cartilage in all joints has more limited ability to regenerate itself Muscle growth is complete at age 30 Skin Acne usually disappears because sex hormones have less influence on secretion of oils from sebaceous glands In young adulthood, skin o Loses moisture o Becomes more dry and wrinkled o Smile lines and corners of eyes become wrinkled Health Status in Young Adulthood Most young adults are healthy (95%) The most common cause of activity limitations are: arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders Accidents are the leading cause of death Highest poverty rate and the lowest level of health insurance of any age group The rates of injury, homicide, and substance abuse peak at this time Smoking (greater than 40% of 21-25 year olds report cigarette use) Only about 4-7% of smokers quit on any one attempt Individuals who stop smoking reduce the following risks o Heart disease, cancer, and stroke Alcohol use or abuse o Risks of heavy alcohol use: liver damage, stroke, death from automobile accidents o Especially risky during college years o Risk drinking is more than 14 drinks a week or 4 drinks in 1 day for men; greater than 7 drinks a week or 3 drinks in day for women Use or abuse of other substances Mental Health Problems Alcoholism – long term physical condition characterized by compulsive drinking o Heritability – 50-60% o Treatments – detox, hosp., medication, support groups (AA), counseling Drug Use and Abuse 20% of 18-25 year olds used drugs during past month Marijuana most popular Substance abuse disorders linked with mood disorders (about 20%) Depression – a time of onset of depressive disorders between 15 and 22 Women more likely to suffer from a major depressive episode than men Behavioral Influences on Health and Fitness Diet and Nutrition o 18 – 30 year olds followed for 15 years – those who ate diet heavy meat more likely to develop HTN than those who ate fruits, vegetables and other plants. o “Mediterranean” Diet – fruits, vegetables, whole grains and unsaturated fats o World Health Organization links process meats (hotdogs, ham, sausage, etc.) to colon cancer Prevalence of Self-Reported Obesity among US Adults by State and Territory Obesity: Body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher Body Mass Index (BMI): A measure of an adult’s weight in relation to his or her height, calculated by using the adult’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of his or her height in meters Obesity rate increasing and there are prevalence differences by race and ethnicity Because many minorities in the US also tend to have a lower SES, their health issues stem from that rather than from minority status per say Most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa Behavior Influences on Health Physical activity o Moderate exercise has health benefits o In addition to helping maintain a normal body weight, exercise Builds muscle and bone Strengthens heart and lungs Helps to maintain a normal blood pressure Protects against heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancers Relieves anxiety and depression Lengthens lives Stress – vicious cycle o More likely to eat junk food, less likely to exercise, less or poor quality of sleep Sleep – goal: 7-9 hours o No daytime napping; bed is for sleep o Avoid stimulants close to bedtime: nicotine, alcohol, and caffeine o Maintain a bedtime routine o Exercise Indirect Influences on Health Socioeconomic status / SES and health o May be perceived as related to race / ethnicity o Because many minorities in the US also tend to have a lower SES, their health issues stem from that rather than from minority status per say o Higher income = better health o Higher education = better health o Influences are indirect – not causative Relationships o Social integration – active engagement in relationships, activities, and roles o Social support – material, informational, and psychological resources Sexual and Reproductive Issues Behavior and attitudes o Almost all US adults have had sexual relations before marriage o Casual sex is fairly common, especially on college campuses o More sexual partners STI (Sexually Transmitted Infections) o Half of all new STI cases are in 18-25 age group o Highest rates are among teens and young adults o Number of people living with HIV has risen worldwide Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) o Physical and emotional discomfort two weeks prior to menstruation o Symptoms Fatigue and headaches Swelling and tenderness of breasts Bloating, nausea, cramps Anxiety, depression, irritability, mood swings o Symptoms can sometimes be minimized or alleviated with Aerobic exercise Small, frequent meals Diet low in salt Diet low in caffeine Regular sleep routines The Brain in Young Adulthood Prefrontal Cortex: The area behind the forehead associated with planning, problem-solving, and related tasks Myelination: The nerve fibers are more extensively covered with myelin, a substance that insulates them so that signals can be transmitted more efficiently Synaptic Pruning: Allowing the remaining synapses to transmit more efficiently. Connections Among Regions: The prefrontal cortex communicates more fully and effectively with other parts of the brain, including those that are particularly associated with emotion and impulses, so that all areas of the brain can be better involved in planning and problem- solving According to recent findings, the human brain does not reach full maturity until at least the mid-20s Cognitive in Adulthood: Reflective Thinking Active and persistent consideration of information or beliefs in the light of evidence Questioning supposed facts Emerges between 20 and 25 years Cortical regions with enriched myelination Post Formal Thought – Higher Education Considered a Catalyst More complex than Piaget described Flexibility Ability to deal with: o Uncertainty and inconsistency o Contradiction o Imperfection and compromise Cognitive Growth in College Post Formal thinking progresses from o Rigidity Flexibility Freely chosen commitments Ultimately, commitment within relativism (truth is not absolute but impacted by culture, religion, history, experience, etc.) Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Post-Conventional Morality o Most people do not reach until their 20s o Acquisition of this is primarily a function of experience Encounter values that conflict with your own When responsible for the welfare of others (parenthood) Bias Male bias o Gilligan believed women have conflict between their needs and those of others instead of justice / fairness Cultural bias o Buddhist monks score low because of their principles of nonviolence and cooperation o Heinz Dilemma (between stealing or letting wife die) The premise of the dilemma is unbelievable to Chinese villagers Schaie: Life Span Model of Cognitive Development Development occurs within a social context 7 stage model o Achieving Stage: (20-30s) – pursuing knowledge goals (for example, taking courses to be a nurse) Emotional Intelligence EI refers to four related skills: the abilities to perceive, use, understand, and manage, or regulate, emotions – our own and those of others – so as to achieve goals A major component of high emotional intelligence is self-awareness The College Transition US college enrollment at record high 38% of all 18-24 year olds Mostly due to increasing numbers of females o 56% of undergraduates Completing College Only one out of four who start college has a degree within five years Completing college depends upon o Motivation and aptitude o Ability to work independently o Social integration and support o Fit between school and student Combining Work and School Working part time can help students organize their time and learn work habits However, more than 15-20 hours per week can have a negative impact Influences on Paths to Adulthood Paths more varied than in the past o Gender o Academic ability o Attitudes toward education o Race and ethnicity o Expectations in late adolescence o Social class Emerging-Ad adults with the highest well-being were not yet married, had no children, attended college, and lived away from childhood home Identity Development Recentering – the process that underlies the shift to an adult identity Power, responsibility, and decision-making gradually shift from the family of origin to the independent young adult o Stage 1: still embedded in family of origin (high school child who is becoming more independent) o Stage 2: connected to family, but moving toward serious commitments and gaining resources to support them (college students, supported by family, exploring future options – major, jobs, intimate relationships, etc.) o Stage 3: Independence from family of origin, with increased commitment to career, partner, and possibly children Identity Explorations is Different for Racial / Ethnic Minorities Some must take on adult responsibilities earlier Tend to value close and interdependent family relations May feel obligated to assist family financially May be under pressure to marry and have children at an earlier age May be under pressure to enter the workforce immediately May deal with complex ethnic identity issues o Part of an ethnic group o Part of a wider, diverse society o Can be particularly challenging for multiracial individuals Personality Development: Four View: 1. Normative Stage Models – every culture has norms about the right time for major social and emotional changes to occur 2. Timing of Events Models – depends on when events occur in people’s lives – marriage, parenthood, retirement 3. Trait Models – psychological models that focus on the measurement of traits – shyness, conscientiousness, etc. 4. Typological Models – expands on trait models to look at personality as a functioning whole Erikson’s Normative Stage Model Intimacy vs. Isolation (6 stage) Young adults must make commitments (strong, long-lasting bonds) to others or face isolation and self-absorption Intimate relationships demand sacrifice and love Resolution of this stage results in virtue of love – mutual devotion between partners who have chosen to share their lives, have children, etc. Theory has been criticized for excluding: single, celibate, homosexual, and childless people from what is “healthy development” Foundations of Intimate Relationships Erikson saw the development of intimate relationships as the crucial task of young adulthood Two expressions of intimacy in young adulthood: friendship and love o Self-disclosure o Self-awareness and empathy o Ability to communicate emotions o Conflict resolution o Commitment o Sexual decision making Bernice Neugarten’s Timing of Events Model The course of development depends on when events occur in people’s lives Social clock – society’s norms or expectations for the appropriate timing of events Varies from culture to culture and generation to generation Trait Model: Costa and McCrae’s Five Factors Model Five traits / factors (each trait has a number of traits / facets associated with it) 1. Neuroticism – anxious, hostile, self-consciousness, impulsive, depressed 2. Extraversion – warmth, gregarious, assertiveness, excitement- seeking, positive emotions 3. Openness to Experience – willing to try new things and embrace new ideas 4. Conscientiousness – deliberate, disciplined, achievers, competent, orderly, dutiful 5. Agreeableness – trusting, straightforward, altruistic, compliant, modest, easily swayed Traits Models: Five Factors of Personality: OCEAN Openness – imaginative or practical, interested in variety or routine, independent or conforming Conscientiousness – organized or disorganized, careful or careless, disciplined or impulsive Extraversion – sociable or retiring, fun-loving or somber, affectionate or reserved Agreeableness – softhearted or ruthless, trusting or suspicious, helpful or uncooperative Neuroticism (emotional stability) – calm or anxious, secure or insecure, self-satisfied or self-pitying Five Factor Model Continuity and Change o Considerable continuity within people in all five dimensions o Other research found gradual change in personality throughout adulthood Positive change with age, even in old age Five factor model is based on subjective ratings – may lack validity Typological Models Jack Block was pioneer in this approach 3 types of personality Ego-resiliency interacts with Ego Control to determine if behavior is adaptive or maladaptive 1. Ego-resilient – adaptability under stress a. Ego-control or self-control 2. Over-controlled – shy, quiet, anxious, withdraw from conflict 3. Under-controlled – active, energetic, impulsive, stubborn, and easily distracted Childhood personality has a lasting influence 103 children in Munich evaluated annually ages 3-12 and then again ages 17-23 o Under-controlled children were more aggressive as teens / young adults o Over-controlled children tended to be shy later on o Compared to those who were ego-resilient, those with under control and over control tended to have more problem leaving home, establishing romantic relationships, getting part time jobs o Individuals can be assisted to adapt with support o Events may change the life-course Friendship in Young Adulthood Center on work and parenting activities Young singles rely on friendship for social needs Women have social needs met by friends more than men Men are more likely to share information and activities Women are more likely to o Have more intimate relationships o Share confidences with friends o Talk with friends about marital problems Robert Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love Consummate love: all three components are present in this complete love 1. Intimacy a. Emotional element b. Involves self-disclosure which leads to connection, warmth, and trust c. Communication is essential 2. Passion a. Motivational element b. Translates physiological arousal into sexual desire (inner drive) c. Sexual attraction, intrusive thoughts about the other 3. Commitment a. Cognitive element b. Decision to love and stay with the beloved Marital and Non-marital Lifestyles Single life Cohabitation Marriage / Same sex marriage Single Because Haven’t found right mate Single by choice Self-supporting Less social pressure Postponing marriage and children until economic stability Enjoy sexual freedom Fear marriage will end in divorce Marriage In the US 90% of adults will marry at some point in their adult life In 2009, the median age of first time US bridegrooms was 28.3 and brides 25.8 Age of marriage has risen in most industrialized countries Legalizing Same-Sex Marriages World o The Netherlands first to legalize, 2001 o Belgium legalized in 2003 o More than a dozen European countries have recognized same- sex unions US o US Supreme Court declared same-sex marriage legal in all 50 states Entering Matrimony Historically and across cultures, mates chosen by matchmakers and / or family o Couples in arranged marriages appear to be equally happy in their relationships o Western ideal of marriage based on love and personal attraction impacting arranges marriages to “semi-arranged” where the potential spouse can veto Marital Satisfaction Married people tend to be happier than unmarried people Individuals who stay married, particularly women, tend to be better off financially Those in unhappy marriages are less happy than unmarried or divorced people Factors in Marital Success Partner’s happiness with the relationship Sensitivity to each other Validation of each other’s feelings Communication Conflict management skills Parenthood People in industrialized countries having fewer children and later in life Increasing proportions of US couples are remaining childless Parenthood can be key developmental experience Women today spend more time on child care than their in the 1960s o Married mother: 12.9 hours per week today compared to 10.6 hours in 1965 Men and Women: Involvement in Parenthood Both have a mixture of feelings o Excitement, anxiety, responsibility Mothers are more involved than fathers in children’s lives o Married women complain of more housework and marital conflict Involved fathers tend to be more satisfied with their lives Marital Satisfaction and Parenthood Marital satisfaction declines during child-rearing years, especially infanthood The more children, the greater the decline Fathers most involved with children were more satisfied with their lives Nighttime crying is associated with less marital satisfaction during the first year of the child’s life. When Marriage Ends Divorce o Average marriage that ends in divorce does so after 7-8 years o One in five US adults has been divorced o Rates twice as high as 1960 o Sharpest drop in divorce rates is among younger cohorts o Divorce breeds divorce o Divorce can be catching Possible Reasons for Divorce Incompatibility and lack of emotional support Younger women said lack of career support Spousal abuse Remarriage and Step-Parenthood One third of US marriages are remarriages for both bride and groom Remarriages tend to be less stable than first marriages Many families adjust and create a nurturing atmosphere Stages of Adjustment of a Step Family Smooth, rapid adjustment o While children fantasize that step parent will leave and original parent will return Conflict – parents side with biological children Strong alliance meet needs
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