Human Growth and Development Quiz Eight Notes
Human Growth and Development Quiz Eight Notes NURS 1430
Popular in Human Growth and Development
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aliyah Becker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NURS 1430 at Saint Louis University taught by Dr. Nina Westhus and Janice Palmer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Human Growth and Development in Nursing and Health Sciences at Saint Louis University.
Reviews for Human Growth and Development Quiz Eight Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/31/16
Middle Adulthood Middle Age: A Social Construct No consensus on when it begins and ends o Ages 4065 years No specific biological or social events that mark its boundaries In US, middleage is increasingly a state of mind o Many people in their 60s and 70s consider themselves middleaged The Aging Experience Most younger middleaged adults see their lives as still needing improvement Most older middleaged adults are satisfied with most areas of their life o Social, financial, health For most people, at least up until about age 75, aging is a positive experience Physical Changes Behavioral and lifestyle factors dating from youth can affect physical changes People who are active early in life earn the benefits later in life o (use it or lose it) AgeRelated Visual Problems Near vision Dynamic visionreading moving signs Sensitivity to light Visual search – locating a car in a parking garage Speed of processing Loss of visual acuity o Presbyopia – difficulty focusing on near objects (reading glasses) o Myopia – nearsightedness Hearing Loss: Presbycusis A gradual hearing loss o Rarely noticed in early life Speeds up in the 50s Affects sounds at pitches higher than speech Other Physical Changes Sensitivity to taste and smell decrease o Taste buds less sensitive o Number of olfactory cells decrease Sensitivity of touch and pain decrease Strength and coordination decrease o Muscle fibers replaced by fat Endurance decreases o Decrease in basal metabolism Manual dexterity decreases Tasks that involve choice of response decrease The Brain at Midlife Aging brains work more slowly and have more difficulty juggling multiple tasks Myelin begins to break down which might help explain slower processing Physical activity can help keep brains healthy Middle aged adult are better drivers than younger people Structural and Systemic Changes Skin may become less taut and smooth o Layer of fat become thinner Hair becomes thinner and more gray (decrease in melanin) People sweat less o Sweat gland diminish Gain weight and lose height Lower bone density o Shrinkage of intervertebral discs Vital Capacity of lungs diminishes Menopause When a woman permanently stops ovulating and menstruating No longer able to conceive a child One average at about 5052 years o Perimenopause: Three to five year slowing process before menopause o Estrogen and ova production decline beginning in mid30s Attitudes toward Menopause In the US, most women view menopause positively o Most express relief o Many see it as a time of greater independence and personal growth Symptoms of Menopause Many women experience little discomfort Most common are hot flashes o Only half of women experience Other symptoms: o Vaginal dryness, burning, itching o Sexual appetite remains Treatments Changes in Male Sexuality No evidence to support “andropause” or “male menopause” Testosterone decreases slowly o About 1% per year after the 30s o No strong relationship between testosterone levels and sexual performance o Possible erectile dysfunction (impotency) Sexual Activity Satisfaction with sex life diminishes gradually during 40s and 50s Decline is related to o Physical changes Chronic illness o Nonphysical changes Monotony in relationship Worries Erectile Dysfunction Persistent inability to achieve or maintain an erect enough penis for satisfactory sexual performance 39% of 40 year olds and 67% of 70 year olds experience this some times Causes include: diabetes, hypertension, kidney failure, depression, alcohol and drug use, and smoking, anxiety, stress, and unsatisfying relationships Testosterone therapies have been found safe and effective (Sildenafil/Viagra) Health in Middle Adulthood Most middleaged Americans are healthy o But low SES experience increasing health problems Most middleaged people experience decline in energy levels Health Trends Hypertension: chronically high blood pressure Risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney diseases – can be controlled through: o Blood pressure screening o Lowsalt diets o Medication Heart disease: leading cause of death between 45 and 64 in the world o In the US, cancer is the leading cause Diabetes: doubled since 1990s Behavioral Influences on Health Longer lives and shorter periods of disability are associated with: o No smoking o Avoiding overweight o Regular exercise o Low stress levels o Good nutrition – fruits and vegetables o Only 1/3 of US adults follow good health recommendations SES and Health People of lower SES tend to have: o Poorer health o Lower life expectancy o More activity limitations o Lower well being o More restricted access to health care Race / Ethnicity and Health Overall death rates from cancer have declined, but not among African Americans for example o Higher death rates from lung, colorectal, prostrate, and breast cancer Hypertension is 50% more prevalent Health disparities: Higher rates attributable to differential treatment African and Hispanic Americans and Health Increased incidence of: o Stroke o Live disease o Diabetes o HIV infection o Cervix and stomach cancers o Homicide Hispanics: Less likely to have health insurance and regular health care Gender and Health Women have longer life span Women seek health treatment more than men Gender gap in heart disease has reversed Women have greater risk after menopause of heart disease and osteoporosis Health after Menopause: Osteoporosis Osteoporosis: Extreme bone loss where bones become thin and brittle due to calcium depletion Can result in loss of height and “hunchback” African American women less likely to develop 3 of 4 cases in white women (fair skin, small frame, low weight, and BMI and a family history) Slowing osteoporosis: o Proper nutrition o Exercise o Avoidance of smoking Breast Cancer 1 in 8 US women develops breast cancer o Chances increases with age o 510% thought to be hereditary At risk: o Overweight women o Those who drink alcohol o Early menarche and late menopause o Family history of breast cancer o Poor diet and low physical activity Hormone Replacement Therapy Artificial estrogen Benefits: o Reduces menopause symptoms o Can prevent bone loss after menopause, however, safer ways and bone loss resumes when treatment is stopped Risks: o Breast cancer o Heart attack (MI) o Stroke / blood clots Common Stressors Affecting Health Stress: the damage the occurs when perceived environmental demands, or stressors, exceed a person’s capacity to cope with them Middle age adults tend to experience higher levels of stress and more frequent stress than other age groups Yet, they feel they have more control (coping skills) o Family relationships (teens, transitions, parents, death, divorce) o Work Burnout Job loss o Money o Housing Men – fight or flight Women – tend and befriend Illness Emotions and Health Negative emotions often associated with poor physical and mental health o Anxiety o Despair Positive emotion may protect against the development of disease Not a causal relationship Mental Health 1 in 4 women showed depressive symptoms Highest rates among African American and Hispanic American women Lowest rates among Chinese and Japanese American women Women with less education and poor women also more likely to have symptoms How Stress Affects Health The more stressful the life changes the greater likelihood of serious illness within the next year or two Daily hassles also cause stress Stress can lead to other lifestyle factors (i.e. sleep less, drink more, etc.) Schaie’s Seattle Longitudinal Study of Adult Intelligence A longitudinal study follows cohorts over time Middleaged people are in their prime o Remarkable stability Found no uniform pattern of agerelated change Most participants showed no significant reduction in ability until around age 60 o And then, not in most areas o Verbal meaning Horn and Cattell: Fluid Intelligence Think glass of water versus block of ice Ability to solve novel problems Requires little previous knowledge o Discovering a pattern in a set of figures Peaks in young adulthood Changes are gradual and do not cause dysfunction Crystallized Intelligence Ability to use information acquired over lifetime o Thinking of a synonym for a word Often improves throughout lifetime May help cover for losses in fluid intelligence Expertise / Specialized Knowledge Mature adults show increasing competence solving problems in their field Think about you, as a student or a new nurse compared to a nurse with 25 years of experience Encapsulation (crystallized intelligence dedicated to specific kinds of knowledge) o Maybe longer to process new information but quicker to solve problems Post Formal Thought: Integrative Thought Mature adults are better at integrating o Logic with intuition and emotion o Conflicting facts and ideas o Compare new and old information o Filter new information with life experience and previous learning o Integrative thinking can inspire Creative Performance Combination of forces o Biological o Personal o Social and Cultural Specific contributions to creativity o Highly organized knowledge of subject o Intrinsic motivation to work o Strong emotional attachment to work Creativity and Age Creativity develops over life time in a social context The “quality ratio” o Proportions of major works to total output o Has no relationship to age Work and Education Emerging adults are students Young and middleaged people are workers Older adults organize their lives around leisure and retirement The Mature Learner Night courses, independent study help nontraditional students meet their goals They are motivated o Adapting to new technology and shifting job markets Recertifying or trying to move up the career ladder o Some simply enjoy learning throughout their lives Normative Stage Models: Carl Jung First to theorize about adult development Health midlife includes individuation o Emergence of true self through balance of the whole personality Union of opposites Two difficult but necessary tasks of middle age o Giving up image of youth o Acknowledging mortality (death) Rogers / SelfActualization Humanistic theory (think Maslow) Can come with maturity The full realization of human potential A lifelong process An opportunity for positive change Not everyone reaches it (going back to school, getting fit, mentoring others, volunteering to help others) Erik Erikson: Generativity vs. Stagnation Generativity o Concern for guiding the next generation o Virtue of care Stagnation o People who do not find an outlet for generativity become selfindulgent or stagnant Forms of Generativity Teaching and mentorship Parenting and grand parenting Productivity or creativity Selfgeneration or selfdevelopment Inferiority: Men in Middle Life Vaillant and Levinson studies (also normative stage theorists like Erikson) Major midlife shifts A crisis for some An introspective tendency at midlife o More nurturing and expressive o Become mentors Timing of Events Model: The Social Clock When events should occur Lifestyles today are more diverse and boundaries of middle adulthood have become blurred o Parenting o Retirement o College student o Career transitions Is There a Midlife Crisis? Stressful crisis of identity o Second adolescence Triggered by o Review of one’s life o Awareness of mortality Do People Really Have Midlife Crises? Jacques, 1967 described midlife crisis Today this is considered an inaccurate representation o Occurrence of crisis is rare o Some suffer turmoil, others feel at their peak o Middle age may be stressful o But individuals can grow from stress and reflect on it positively o Even negative events can have positive outcomes Piaget: Accommodation New cognitive schemas that individuals use to interpret their experiences Perceptions continually revised and updated with new information through two processes Ideally reach identity balance (for example – the effects of aging) o Identity assimilation (holding onto a consistent sense of self) o Identity accommodation (adjusting identity schema to fit new experiences) Equilibrium and Identity Style Assimilative identity Accommodative identity Balanced identity Consensual Relationships: Marriage Couples tend to be more satisfied at 3544 tears of marriage than during first four years o Marital satisfaction tends to bottom out early in middle age When many couples have teenagers Marital Satisfaction “U” shaped curve Marital satisfaction is generally lowest when teenage children are living at home Marital satisfaction is often highest when children are grown and during retirement Sexual satisfaction affects marital satisfaction Cohabitation and Mental Health Men: More depressed than married counterparts Women: No differences in mental health from married counterparts Why the gender difference? o Women may want intimacy without obligation of caring for a husband o Men may benefit from the kind of care wives traditionally provide Divorce AARP study describes midlife divorce as more emotionally devastating than losing a job and about as devastating as a major illness Midlife divorces seem especially hard for women Number one reason why midlife couples divorce is abuse Marital Capital Financial and emotional benefits of marriage o Becomes difficult to give up o Makes longstanding marriages less likely to break up o Middleaged women tend to lose the most marital capital if they divorce Marital Status, WellBeing, and Health Married people tend to be o Healthier o Live longer o Better off financially o Better able to buffer stressors Gay and lesbian Relationships in Midlife Middleaged gays and lesbians grew up when homosexuality was considered a mental illness o Issues surrounding identity more complicated than for younger counterparts o Many may be openly gay for first time in their lives Gay couples do better and are stronger if they have social support or “fictive kin” Friendships in Midlife Social networks are smaller and more intimate Friendships are an especially strong source of support for women Quality of time makes up for lack of quantity of time spent with friends Conflicts tend to center around values, beliefs, and lifestyles Relationships with Mature Children Today, middleaged parents have to deal with o Adult children still living at home o Adult children returning to live at home Middleaged Parents with Adolescent Children Teens usually have middleaged parents For parents, this period is usually a time of o Questioning o Reappraisal o Diminished wellbeing o Mix of positive and negative emotions The Empty Nest A transition period when the youngest (last) child leaves home Women heavily invested in mothering typically find this transition difficult Impacts some fathers too Most women find the transition liberating o Relief from chronic emergencies of parenthood Empty Nest and Marital Satisfaction Good Marriages o Empty nest may start a second honeymoon phase Shaky Marriages o May stress marriage, lead to divorce Parenting Grown Children Parents tend to give more support as the children are establishing careers and families Some parents have troubles treating the children as adults Most conflicts at this stage can be solved with open airing of feelings The Cluttered Nest Also called o Revolving door syndrome o Boomerang phenomenon Has become more common as more adults return home Most likely to return o Men o Single o Divorced or separated Aging Parents: Contact and Mutual Help Most middleaged adults have affectionate relationships with their parents o Frequent contact and mutual help is typical A life stage of filial maturity o Middleaged children accepting and meeting their parents dependency needs A healthy outcome of filial crisis o Middleaged adults balancing love and duty for their parents Caring for Aging Parents When older people become infirm, it can strain the relationship Many elders receive longterm care in the home of the caregiver o Typically, a daughter takes a caregiver role Strains of Caring For Parents Caregiving is a physical, mental, and financial burden o Sandwich generation – caring for both elderly parents and their own children Stressful caring for physical ailments, as well as mental ailments, like dementia o Caring for demented parent can be agonizingly isolating o Wellbeing is likely to suffer Caregiver burnout Relationships with Siblings Often take the form of an hourglass o Most contact is at the two ends – childhood and late adulthood o Although some studies show decrease in contact throughout adulthood Caring for aging parents can bring siblings closer or cause resentment Grandparenthood Being a grandparent often begins before the end of active parenting Average grandparent o Starts at 45 o Has six grandchildren o Still has living parents The Grandparent Role 68% see at least one grandchild every two weeks Grandmothers tend to be kinkeepers o Keep in touch with the grandchildren o Have warmer relationships than with grandfathers Grandparents are the nation’s primary childcare providers Many spend money on educational needs of grandchildren Grandparents after Parental Divorce or Remarriage After grandchildren’s parents’ divorce o Maternal Grandparents – tend to have more contact with grandchildren o Paternal Grandparents – remarriage of mother further decreases chances for contact o Legal arrangements? Raising Grandchildren: SkipGeneration Families Many grandparents are sole caregivers of grandchildren Parents unable to care for children due to: o Teenage pregnancy o Substance abuse o Illness o Divorce o Death Kinship care – grandparents who do not become foster parents or gain custody o Practical problems o Unpaid babysitters o Health insurance challenges o Workplace policies (covered under 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act) Effect of “Parenting by Default” Unplanned surrogate parenting is draining o Physically o Emotionally Generation gap can be larger than between parents and children Unclear legal rights may cause complications o Financially Many have to abandon leisure and retirement pursuits
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'