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PSY 1010 Chapter 11 Notes

by: Aliyah Becker

PSY 1010 Chapter 11 Notes PSY 1010

Marketplace > Saint Louis University > Psychlogy > PSY 1010 > PSY 1010 Chapter 11 Notes
Aliyah Becker

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These notes discuss the information in Chapter 11 -Personality Theory and Assessment
Introductory Psychology
Kristin Kiddoo
Class Notes
personality, Personality Theory and Assessment, Chapter 11
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aliyah Becker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Saint Louis University taught by Kristin Kiddoo in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Saint Louis University.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter 11: Personality Theory and Assessment Personality: A person’s characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling Psychoanalytic Theories Freud and Psychoanalysis  Psychoanalysis: Freud’s term for his theory of personality and his therapy for treating psychological disorders Freud’s Theory of Personality  EGO, ID, SUPERGO  Conscious: Everything we are thinking about at any given moment  Preconscious: Thoughts and feelings we can easily bring to mind  Unconscious: Thoughts and feelings that are difficult to call up because they have been repressed Defense Mechanisms 1. Denial: Refusing to acknowledge consciously the existence of danger or a threatening situation 2. Repression: Involuntarily removing an unpleasant memory, thought, or perception from consciousness or barring disturbing sexual and aggressive impulses from consciousness 3. Projection: Attributing one’s own undesirable traits, thoughts, behaviors, or impulses to another 4. Rationalization: Supplying a logical, rational, or socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason for an action or event 5. Regression: Reverting to a behavior that might have reduced anxiety at an earlier stage of development 6. Reaction Formation: Expressing exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of disturbing, unconscious impulses and desires. 7. Displacement: Substituting a less threatening object or person for the original object of a sexual or aggressive impulse. 8. Sublimation: Rechanneling sexual and aggressive energy into pursuits or accomplishments that society considers acceptable or even admirable The Psychosexual Stages of Development 1. Oral Stage When: Birth – 1 Year What Occurs? Weaning, oral gratification from sucking, eating, and biting 2. Anal Stage When: 1 – 3 Years What Occurs? Toilet training, gratification from expelling and withholding feces 3. Phallic (Oedipal) Stage When: 3 – 5 or 6 Years What Occurs? Oedipal conflict; sexual curiosity; masturbation 4. Latency Stage When: 5 or 6 – Puberty What Occurs? Period of sexual calm; interest in school, hobbies, same-sex friends 5. Genital Stage When: Begins at Puberty What Occurs? Revival of sexual interests; establishment of mature sexual relationships Evaluating Freud’s Contribution  Freud is credited with calling attention to: o The unconscious o The importance of early childhood experiences o The role of defense mechanisms  However, his theory is often criticized because it defies scientific testing The Neo-Freudians  Carl Jung o Personality consists of three parts  Ego  Personal unconscious  Collective unconscious (archetypes)  Alfred Adler o Predominant force of the personality is the drive to  Overcome and compensate for feelings of weakness and inferiority  Strive for superiority or significance  Karen Horney o Work centered on two main themes  The neurotic personality  Feminine psychology  Childhood anxiety Humanistic Theories Two Humanistic Theories  Abraham Maslow o Self-Actualization: Developing to one’s fullest potential o Peak Experiences: Experiences of deep meaning, insight, and harmony within oneself and with the universe.  Carl Rogers o Conditions of Worth: Conditions on which the positive regard of others rests o Unconditioned Positive Regard: Unqualified caring and nonjudgmental acceptance of another Self Esteem  One source of variations in self-esteem arises from comparisons of actual to desired traits  Self-esteem is fairly stable from childhood through the late adult years  By age 7, most children have a sense of global self-esteem. Trait Theories Traits: Personal qualities or characteristics, which are stable across situations that are used to describe or explain personality. Early Trait Theories  Gordon Allport o Cardinal Trait: Viewed as the most defining trait of a person o Central Trait: A brief list of traits that show up in most of our behaviors  Raymond Cattell o Surface Trait: Observable qualities of personality o Source Trait: Deeper, more general, underlying personality factors  Hans Eysenck o The three most important dimensions of personality  Psychoticism  Extroversion  Neuroticism The Five-Factor Model 1. Openness  Imaginative vs. practical  Preference for variety vs. preference for routine  Independent vs. conforming 2. Conscientiousness  Organized vs. disorganized  Careful vs. careless  Disciplined vs. impulsive 3. Extraversion  Sociable vs. retiring  Fun-loving vs. sober  Affectionate vs. reserved 4. Agreeableness  Soft-hearted vs. ruthless  Trusting vs. suspicious  Helpful vs. uncooperative 5. Neuroticism  Calm vs. anxious  Secure vs. insecure  Self-satisfied vs. self-pitying Personality and Culture  Individualist Cultures: Encourage people to view themselves as separate from others and to value independence and assertiveness  Collectivist Cultures: Emphasize social connectedness among people and encourage individuals to define themselves in terms of their social relationships Social-Cognitive Theories The Situation-Trait Debate  An ongoing discussion among psychologists about the relative importance of factors within the situation and factors within the person in accounting for behavior  Initiated by Walter Mischel  Reciprocal Determinism o Bandura’s concept of a mutually influential relationship among:  Behavior  Cognitive factors  Environment Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control  Self-efficacy: The perception a person has of his or her ability to perform competently whatever is attempted  Locus of Control: o Internal Locus of Control: People who see themselves as primarily in control of their behavior and its consequences o External Locus of Control: People who perceive what happens to them to be in the hands of fate, luck, or chance Social-Cognitive Perspective  Learned Helplessness: o Uncontrollable bad events  Perceived lack of control  generalized helpless behavior Personality Assessment Observations, Interviews, and Rating Scales  Behavioral Assessment: Used to count and record the frequency of particular behaviors  Structured Interviews: Used to compare the responses of one interviewee to those of others given under similar circumstances  Rating Scales: Used to quantify behaviors that occur during observations or interviews. Personality Inventories  Paper and pencil test with questions about a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors o Measures several dimensions of personality o Can be scored according to a standard procedure  MMPI-2: Used to screen for and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders  CPI: Developed especially for typical individuals aged 13 and older  MBTI: Useful for measuring normal individual differences; based on Carl Jung’s theory of personality Projective Tests  People respond to inkblots or drawings of ambiguous human situations by projecting their inner thoughts, feelings, fears, or conflicts onto the test materials o Rorschach Inkblot Method o Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)


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