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PSY 1010 Chapter 12 Notes

by: Aliyah Becker

PSY 1010 Chapter 12 Notes PSY 1010

Marketplace > Saint Louis University > Psychlogy > PSY 1010 > PSY 1010 Chapter 12 Notes
Aliyah Becker

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About this Document

These notes cover the information in Chapter 12 -Psychological Disorders
Introductory Psychology
Kristin Kiddoo
Class Notes
Psychology, Psychological Disorder, chapter 12
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aliyah Becker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Saint Louis University taught by Kristin Kiddoo in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Saint Louis University.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders Defining Psychological Disorders Defining a Psychological Disorder  Psychological Disorder: Mental processes and/or behavior patterns that cause emotional distress and/or substantial impairment in functioning What is Abnormal Behavior? 1. Is the behavior considered strange within the person’s own culture? 2. Does the behavior cause personal distress? 3. Is the behavior maladaptive? 4. Is the person a danger to self or others? 5. Is the person legally responsible for his or her acts? Mental Illness and the Law  Insanity: A legal term used by the courts to declare people not legally responsible for their acts o Not a term used by mental health professionals Classifying and Tracking Psychological Disorders  DSM-5: A manual published by the American Psychiatric Association. It describes the criteria used to classify and diagnose mental disorders New DSM-5  Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ADHD, Autism)  Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders  Bipolar and Related Disorders  Depressive Disorders  Anxiety Disorders  Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders  Trauma and Stressors Related Disorders  Dissociative Disorders  Somatic Symptom Disorders  Feeding and Eating Disorders  Elimination Disorders  Sleep-Wake Disorders  Sexual Dysfunctions  Gender Dysphoria  Disruptive, Impulsive Control, and Conduct Disorders  Substance Use and Addictive Disorders  Neurocognitive Disorders  Personality Disorders  Paraphilic Disorders  Other Mental Disorders Prevalence of Psychological Disorders  26% of Americans are diagnosed with a psychological disorder each year  The lifetime risk of developing such a disorder is nearly 50% in the US Explaining Psychological Disorders  Biological Perspective: Symptom of an underlying physical disorder caused by brain abnormality, genetic inheritance, or infection  Psychodynamic Perspective: Stems from early childhood experiences and any unresolved, unconscious sexual or aggressive conflicts  Learning Perspective: Abnormal behaviors are learned and sustained, or there is a failure to learn appropriate behaviors  Cognitive Perspective: From faulty thinking or distorted perceptions  Biophysical Perspective: Results from a combination of biological, psychological, and social causes Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders  Anxiety Disorders: Characterized by frequent fearful thoughts about what might happen in the future o Panic Attacks o Agoraphobia o Panic Disorder o Generalized Anxiety Disorder o Phobias o Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Panic Attacks, Agoraphobia, and Panic Disorder  Panic Attack: An episode of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror  Agoraphobia: Intense fear of being places from which escape is difficult  Panic Disorder: Recurring unpredictable episodes of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror Generalized Anxiety Disorders and Phobias  Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Involves chronic, excessive worry  Social Phobias: Arises out of the fear of embarrassment  Specific Phobias: Represent irrational fear responses to objects or situations Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A person has recurrent obsessions and or compulsions o Obsessions: Persistent, involuntary thoughts, images, or impulses that invade consciousness and cause great distress o Compulsions: Persistent, irresistible, and irrational urges to perform acts or rituals repeatedly Mood Disorders Mood Disorders  Mood Disorders: Disorders characterized by extreme and unwarranted disturbances in emotion or mood o Major Depressive Disorder o Bipolar Disorder Major Depressive Disorder  Marked by feelings of: o Great sadness o Despair o Hopelessness o Loss of ability to feel pleasure o Psychomotor disturbance o Possibility of psychotic depression Bipolar Disorder  Bipolar Disorder: A mood in which manic episodes alternative with periods of depression, usually with relatively normal periods in between Explaining Mood Disorders 1. Disturbances in the brain’s serotonin levels 2. Genetic predisposition 3. Abnormal patterns in the neurotransmitters dopamine, GABA, and norepinephrine 4. Personality trait of neuroticism 5. Major life stress Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Disorders  A severe psychological disorder characterized by: o Loss of contact with reality o Hallucinations o Delusions o Inappropriate or flat affect o Some disturbance in thinking o Social withdrawal o Other bizarre behavior Symptoms of Schizophrenia  Positive (Addition of Behavior) o Hallucinations o Delusions  Of grandeur  Of persecution o Derailment o Grossly disorganized behavior o Inappropriate affect  Negative (Removal of Behavior) o Social withdrawal o Apathy o Loss of motivation o Lack of goal-directed activity o Very limited speech o Slow movements o Flat affect o Poor problem solving abilities o A distorted sense of time o Poor hygiene and grooming Types of Schizophrenia  Disorganized: Extreme social withdrawal, hallucinations, delusions, silliness, inappropriate laughter, grotesque mannerisms, and other bizarre behavior  Catatonic: Characterized by complete stillness or blankness or great excitement and agitation  Paranoid: Characterized by delusions of grandeur and/or persecution  Undifferentiated: General term used when symptoms do not conform to the other types or conform to more than one type Other Psychological Disorders Somatoform Disorders  Hypochondriasis: Involves a persistent fear that bodily symptoms are the sign of some serious disease  Conversion Disorder: Involves a loss of motor or sensory functioning in some part of the body, which has no physical cause but solves some psychological problem Dissociative Disorders  Dissociative Disorders: Disorders in which, under unbearable distress, consciousness becomes separated from a person’s identity or their memories of important personal events, or both o Dissociative Amnesia o Dissociative Fugue o Dissociate Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality) Sexual Disorders  Sexual Dysfunctions: Persistent, recurrent, and distressing. Problems that involve sexual desire, arousal, or pleasure associated with sex or orgasm  Paraphilia: Recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, or behavior. Involves nonhuman objects, children, non-consenting persons, or suffering of individual or partner  Gender Identity Disorder: Characterized by a problem accepting one’s identity as male or female Personality Disorders  People with personality disorders have long-standing, inflexible, maladaptive patterns of behavior that cause problems in their social relationships and at work Types of Personality Disorders  Cluster A: Personality disorders characterized by unusual behavior o Paranoid o Schizoid o Schizotypal  Cluster B: Personality disorders characterized by erratic, overly dramatic behavior o Narcissistic o Histrionic o Borderline o Antisocial  Cluster C: Personality disorders that are associated with fearful and anxious behaviors o Obsessive-Compulsive o Avoidant o Dependent


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