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PSY 1010 Chapter 14 Notes

by: Aliyah Becker

PSY 1010 Chapter 14 Notes PSY 1010

Marketplace > Saint Louis University > Psychlogy > PSY 1010 > PSY 1010 Chapter 14 Notes
Aliyah Becker

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About this Document

These notes cover the information learned in Chapter 14 -Social Psychology
Introductory Psychology
Kristin Kiddoo
Class Notes
social psychology, Introductory Psychology, Psychology, Chapter 14
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aliyah Becker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Saint Louis University taught by Kristin Kiddoo in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Saint Louis University.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter 14: Social Psychology Social Psychology: The subfield that attempts to explain how the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others influences the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals Social Cognition Impression Formation and Management  Primacy Effect: The tendency for an overall impression of another to be influenced more by the first information that is received about that person than by information that comes later  Impression Management: The intentional steps we take to influence others’ opinions of us Attribution  Dispositional Attribution: An internal attribution o Ex: “He is such a careless driver. He never watches out for other cars.”  Situational Attribution: An external attribution o Ex: “He probably got caught in some bad traffic, and then was late for a meeting.” Attraction Factors Influencing Attraction  Factors Influencing Attraction o Proximity o Repeated Exposure o Moods and Emotions o Reciprocity o Similarity  Physical Attractiveness: A major factor in attraction for people of all ages. People attribute positive qualities to those who are physically attractive, a phenomenon called the halo effect Intimate Relationships: Romantic Attraction  Matching Hypothesis: The notion that people tend to have lovers or spouses who are similar to themselves in physical attractiveness and other assets Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love  Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment produce seven different kinds of love: o Liking o Infatuated o Empty o Romantic o Fatuous o Companionate o Consummate Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance Conformity  Conformity: Changing or adopting a behavior or an attitude in order to be consistent with the social norms of a group or the expectations of other people  Asch Study: o 5% went along with the incorrect, unanimous, majority all the time o 70% went along some of the time o 25% remained completely independent Obedience  Obedience: Behaving in accordance with the riles and commands of those in authority Milgram’s Obedience Experiment  Method: Subjects were told to give increasing levels of shock to another subject every time an error was made  Results: 65% obeyed until the end, even though many were upset by being asked to do so Compliance  Compliance: Acting in accordance with the direct requests of other people o Door-in-the-face Technique o Low-ball Technique o Foot-in-the-door Technique Group Influence Social Loafing  Social Loafing: The tendency to put forth less effort when working with others on a common task than when working alone Group Decision Making  Group Polarization: Occurs when, after a discussion, a group’s decision shifts to a more extreme position in whatever direction the members were leaning initially  Groupthink: Happens when a group’s desire to maintain solidarity outweighs other considerations, a process that often leads to poor decisions Social Roles  Social Roles: Individual behavior can be guided by the expectations associated with certain roles o Positive and Negative Effects  Stanford Prison Experiment: College students assigned to prisoners or guards o Guards: Some became heartless, sadistic o Prisoners: Degraded, obedient  Deindividuation: Process in which individuals lose their sense of personal identity as a result of identification with a group  Social Identity: Process in which individuals join with others to construct a group identity in order to insulate themselves from stressors Attitudes and Attitude Changes Attitudes  Components of Attitudes o Cognitive Component: “I think country music is better than any other kind of music” o Emotional Component: “I like country music; it’s fun and uplifting” o Behavioral Component: “I buy country music CDs every chance I get” Cognitive Dissonance  Cognitive Dissonance: The unpleasant state that can occur when people become aware of inconsistencies between their attitudes or between their attitudes and their behavior o Ex: “I am a good, loyal friend” “I repeated gossip about my friend Chris” Persuasion  Elements of Persuasion: 1. The source of the communication (who is doing the persuading) 2. The audience (who is being persuaded) 3. The message (what is being said) 4. The medium (the means by which the message is transmitted) Prosocial Behavior Reasons for Helping  Altruism  Commitment  Social Responsibility Norms The Bystander Effect  The Bystander Effect: As the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, the probability that the victim will receive help decreases, and the help, if given, is likely to be delayed o Diffusion of Responsibility: With the more people present in an emergency, people will be believe that someone else will help so they do not have to Aggression Biological Factors in Aggression  Heredity  Low Arousal Level  High Testosterone Level  Neurological Disorders  Alcohol Abuse Other Influences on Aggression  Frustration-aggression hypothesis o Scapegoating  Aversive conditions  Unpleasant emotional states  Invasions of privacy  Crowding  Certain beliefs The Social Learning Theory of Aggression  People acquire aggressive responses by: o Observing aggressive models in the:  Family  Subculture  Media o Having aggressive responses reinforced Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice and Discrimination  Prejudice: Attitudes (usually negative) towards others based on their gender, religion, race, or membership in a particular group  Discrimination: Behaviors (usually negative) directed toward others based on their gender, religion, race, or membership in a particular group The Roots of Prejudice and Discrimination  Realistic Conflict Theory: As competition increases among social groups for scarce resources, so do prejudice, discrimination, and hatred  In-Groups and Out-Groups: Prejudice can spring from the distinct social categories into which people divide the world  Social-Cognitive Theory: People learn attitudes of prejudice and hatred the same way they learn other attitudes In-Groups and Out-Groups  In-Group: A social group with a strong sense of togetherness, from which others are excluded (US)  Out-Group: A social group made up of individuals specifically identified by the in-group as not belonging (THEM) The Experiment at Robber’s Cave  Boys were randomly separated into two groups o Rattlers and Eagles  Competitions fostered hostility between groups  Experimenters contrived situations requiring cooperation for success o Result: Cross-group friendships increased Stereotypes and Ethnocentrism  Processes we used to simplify, categorize, and order the social world can also distort our views of it o Stereotypes o Ethnocentrism Is Prejudice Decreasing?  From the 1960s-1980s, White Americans became less likely to object to living in racially mixed neighborhoods  Many Americans believe that the election of the first African American president in 2008 was a sign that prejudice and discrimination have declined significantly  However, ethnic groups still have varying views of the degree to which prejudice and discrimination remain problematic in the US


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