Bio 111 notes
Bio 111 notes Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II
Popular in Principles of Biology II
Popular in Biology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angel Carrasquillo on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at University of Rochester taught by MINCKLEY R in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology II in Biology at University of Rochester.
Reviews for Bio 111 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/31/16
Angel Carrasquillo Bio notes 01/24-01/31 ● Natural Selection - Variation is population - Heritability - Differential reproductive success ● Sexual selection - sexes differ in their investment in offspring ● Investment difference between males and females - 1) Gamete size : Isogomy = same gamete size, anisogomy = diff. gamete size (sex determined on gamete size - 2) parental care = time put into offspring - 3) maximum offspring, males usually have higher number ● basic dichotomy - male fitness: sperm cheap, mates difficult to find - female fitness: limited by egg production, but mates easy to find ● Intrasexual selection : males compete with other males for mates - intersexual selection: females compete for BEST male with other females ● sexual dimorphism: males look a lot different than females ● Direct Benefits: benefits that affect female and offspring directly - goop caretaker - good amount of resources (territory quality) - “Safe sex” (no parasites) ● Indirect benefits: benefits that ONLY affect offspring - ex: good traits, good genes hypothesis (females choose based on good traits) ● Indicator traits : traits that indicate good fitness - size, ornamental traits (long tail, bright colors) ● Individuals that have higher fitness than others express themselves in the next generation more ● Cooperation (Hamilton) : working together to improve fitness - Altruism: sacrificing your fitness for someone else's fitness - Eusociality: most extreme form of cooperation - 3 conditions - 1) reproductive division of labor - 2) overlapping generations - 3) cooperative care of young ● The Resolution (Hamilton 1964) - genes vehicles of evolution not individuals - traits that pass on most gene copies favored by selection - number of identical gene copies greatest in close relatives - therefore altruism will evolve is altruistic traits help genes ● Hamilton’s solution - Indirect/direct fitness involved with inclusive fitness ● What favors evolution of eusociality - low cost favors eusociality - high relatedness and benefit favor eusociality - haplodiploid constraints - ecological constrain ● Coefficient of Relatedness for diplodiploids - calculating r with pedigrees - r = (what mom gives)(what you get) + (what dad gives)(what you get) ● *Phylogeny of hymenoptera ● ● 1) Haplodiploid evolves much earlier than eusociality ● 2) Eusociality has originated multiple independent times ● ● * Haplodiploidy does not explain eusociality ● * Queen nest founding: form of cooperation ● *Cooperation is key s/c probability of having successful nest is higher with more foundries. ● *Cooperative breeding ● -some birds don’t mate their first year of being reproductively mature, instead, they go out and help gain resources ● *Synergistic benefit – wolves hunt in packs (cooperate) to get bigger animals ● *Reciprocity or Reciprocal Altruism (Trivers 1971) ● -Cooperation may be favored even when there is a short-term cost. If reciprocal helping relationships exist. ● -Requires: ● 1, Multiple opportunities for mutual helping * ● 2, Ability to recognize individuals and remember behavior ● 3, Withholding cooperation to non- cooperatives ● * = Key Feature ● - Examples: Long lives individuals, good memories, social interactions, viscous population ● *Multicellularity : Cooperation among sets of cells ● Mutation can not be selected to pass to next generation ● Genes make outcomes possible, but do not determine outcome ● How does mutation arise? - Copying errors
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'