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Bio 111 notes

by: Angel Carrasquillo

Bio 111 notes Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II

Angel Carrasquillo
GPA 2.6

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Principles of Biology II
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angel Carrasquillo on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at University of Rochester taught by MINCKLEY R in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology II in Biology at University of Rochester.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
Angel Carrasquillo Bio notes 01/24-01/31 ● Natural Selection - Variation is population - Heritability - Differential reproductive success ● Sexual selection - sexes differ in their investment in offspring ● Investment difference between males and females - 1) Gamete size : Isogomy = same gamete size, anisogomy = diff. gamete size (sex determined on gamete size - 2) parental care = time put into offspring - 3) maximum offspring, males usually have higher number ● basic dichotomy - male fitness: sperm cheap, mates difficult to find - female fitness: limited by egg production, but mates easy to find ● Intrasexual selection : males compete with other males for mates - intersexual selection: females compete for BEST male with other females ● sexual dimorphism: males look a lot different than females ● Direct Benefits: benefits that affect female and offspring directly - goop caretaker - good amount of resources (territory quality) - “Safe sex” (no parasites) ● Indirect benefits: benefits that ONLY affect offspring - ex: good traits, good genes hypothesis (females choose based on good traits) ● Indicator traits : traits that indicate good fitness - size, ornamental traits (long tail, bright colors) ● Individuals that have higher fitness than others express themselves in the next generation more ● Cooperation (Hamilton) : working together to improve fitness - Altruism: sacrificing your fitness for someone else's fitness - Eusociality: most extreme form of cooperation - 3 conditions - 1) reproductive division of labor - 2) overlapping generations - 3) cooperative care of young ● The Resolution (Hamilton 1964) - genes vehicles of evolution not individuals - traits that pass on most gene copies favored by selection - number of identical gene copies greatest in close relatives - therefore altruism will evolve is altruistic traits help genes ● Hamilton’s solution - Indirect/direct fitness involved with inclusive fitness ● What favors evolution of eusociality - low cost favors eusociality - high relatedness and benefit favor eusociality - haplodiploid constraints - ecological constrain ● Coefficient of Relatedness for diplodiploids - calculating r with pedigrees - r = (what mom gives)(what you get) + (what dad gives)(what you get) ● *Phylogeny of hymenoptera ● ● 1) Haplodiploid evolves much earlier than eusociality ● 2) Eusociality has originated multiple independent times ● ● * Haplodiploidy does not explain eusociality ● * Queen nest founding: form of cooperation ● *Cooperation is key s/c probability of having successful nest is higher with more foundries. ● *Cooperative breeding ● -some birds don’t mate their first year of being reproductively mature, instead, they go out and help gain resources ● *Synergistic benefit – wolves hunt in packs (cooperate) to get bigger animals ● *Reciprocity or Reciprocal Altruism (Trivers 1971) ● -Cooperation may be favored even when there is a short-term cost. If reciprocal helping relationships exist. ● -Requires: ● 1, Multiple opportunities for mutual helping * ● 2, Ability to recognize individuals and remember behavior ● 3, Withholding cooperation to non- cooperatives ● * = Key Feature ● - Examples: Long lives individuals, good memories, social interactions, viscous population ● *Multicellularity : Cooperation among sets of cells ● Mutation can not be selected to pass to next generation ● Genes make outcomes possible, but do not determine outcome ● How does mutation arise? - Copying errors


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