BIO 1144 Sec 03 Week of Jan 25 Notes (Thursday 1-28)
BIO 1144 Sec 03 Week of Jan 25 Notes (Thursday 1-28) BIO 1144
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaren Davis on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Biology II Thomas Holder in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Intro to Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Chapter 35 Div. Anthophyta • Plant Growth ◦ Indeterminate growth ‣ They grow until they die ◦ Growth happens two ways ‣ Increase in number of cells > cellular repro. mitosis and cytokinesis ‣ Increase in cell size • Sexual cycle of Angiosperm ◦ Alternation of Generation ‣ Alternation between a diploid (2N) plant body and a haploid (1N) plant body ◦ Sporophyte-2N (diploid form) ‣ Spore producing plant form ‣ Tulips, roses ‣ Microscopic ‣ Dominant part (mostly) ‣ Produces flowers/fruits ◦ Gametophyte-1N (haploid form) ‣ Gamete producing plant form ‣ Microscopic-very tiny ‣ 2-7 cells ‣ Pollen and embryo sac ‣ Meiosis --> changes chromosome # • Changes generation ‣ Synagamy--> restores chromosome # ^ • Changes generation • Plant Organs : ◦ Roots, leaves, stems • Shoot ◦ Development due to mitosis/cytokinesis (cell repro.) ◦ 1°growth- elongation of plant organ(s) ‣ Stem, leaves, root ‣ All plants exhibit primary growth ‣ Primary plant 1°tissues are directly from primary growth ◦ 2°Growth - expansion of plant organ(s) ‣ Woody tissue • Bark • 2°tissue ‣ Not all plants exhibit secondary growth • 1°Tissue ◦ 1°xylem - conducting tissues (vascular); H2O, minerals ◦ 1°phloem - conducting tissue (vascular); food; solutes ◦ Epidermis - outer most primary 1°tissue (dermal); protection ◦ Parenchyma - storage; part of cortex and pith; most abundant ◦ Collenchyma - protection and support of growing plant organs; cortex ◦ Sclerenchyma - protection of plant organs; support - cortex (non-elongating) • 2 Major Groups of Angiosperm: ◦ Monocots ‣ All have primary or 1°growth ‣ 60,000 species • Lilies, tulips, bushes ◦ Dicots (Eudicots) - most ‣ All exhibit 1°growth (all) and 2°growth (most) ‣ 240,000 species • At tips of roots and shoots are: ◦ Big clusters of cells called meristems - "cell factories" ‣ Constantly dividing to to make cells ◦ Apical meristems (tips) ‣ RAM (Root AM) 1°growth = elongation ‣ SAM (Shoot AM) ◦ Lateral meristems - "rings" in stem or root ‣ Cause expansion 2°growth (root or stem) • Increase diameter • Roots: ◦ Mostly underground ◦ Functions - anchorage storage - food, H2O absorption of H2O/ minerals from soil ◦ 1°growth • Root (long section) ◦ 4 regions Region of maturation 1° tissue Region of Elongation • Cells enlarge Region of Cell Division • Root elongates • Constant cell division RAM Root Cap • Protection of Ram Vascular Cylinder (inside endodermis) • 1°xylem tissue- conduct h2p/ mineral • 1°phloem tissue- conduct food/ solutes Dicot Monocot • Taproot System • Fibrous Root System • 1 main root • Main 1st root with many broken off and branching many smaller roots branching roots • Shoots: ◦ Leaves ‣ Leaves function for the process of photosynthesis ◦ Stem ‣ Support leaves ‣ Transport
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