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Week 3 notes

by: John Hopkins

Week 3 notes History 202

John Hopkins
GPA 3.061

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Discussions during week 3.
American History (1877 to the Present)
Simon Bolto
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by John Hopkins on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 202 at Ball State University taught by Simon Bolto in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see American History (1877 to the Present) in Global Studies at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
History 202 Lecture Notes ***These notes are not to be used in place of your own, you are still responsible to take your own notes. These notes that I am providing are to aid your own notes and help you study in this course.*** Lecture #5 - 1/26/16 As the discussion in class had been primarily about slavery and Black equality in the previous lectures, the coming lectures veered toward other happenings in the country during and after that time period. Westward Expansion - The Louisiana Purchase o France had lost Haiti, a slave colony that was supplied by the central section of North America, so they no longer needed the land and could use funding for other European wars and conflicts. - Manifest Destiny o This was revered as the peoples God given right if not their duty to expand westward to discover the unknown territories and civilize the entire continent. o This, however, brought several consequences to those whom already lived there. o There are several reason why people started to move westward.  For the resources.  To start new lives. (Both immigrants and Americans)  For religious freedom. o There were several risks associated with moving west.  Health factors for individuals and families.  Traveling over new and unknown territories.  Some traveled in groups while others traveled alone or with only their families. o This was about trying to resettle and improve life. - Dead Wood o This city was outside of federal law, still occupied by Native Americans.  The area was lawless which meant anything could and would happen.  People traveled there after rumors of gold being in the mountains spread. - Some areas were set aside for their natural beauty, such as Yellow Stone National Park. o These areas were unable to be settled for this reason. - The government and institutions encouraged westward expansion to try to solve social issues such as: o Over population in cities. o Unemployment. o To boost the national economy. o To ease tensions between races and ethnicities. o To establish strength and security of the U.S.  Security both external and internal. - The Homestead act – 1862-1880 o The act passed into law giving settlers legal right to the land that they have settled. o It gave Blacks and women eligibility to own land as well as European immigrants. o The activities that happened before this act such as farming or hunting could now be professional in practice and legal.  These can now be contributed toward the national market. - Rail expansion o Connecting and unifying the entire country. o Trades and shipments for the national market could now easily be done. o Chicago became known as the gateway to the west.  Most railways traveled through Chicago. o Transforms the economy and gives a new vision of the country. o Gave a new mode of transportation.  Transcontinental travel was now possible in a matter of days. o The railroads caused some economic issues.  The money in railroads was both real and not real.  Everyone was investing in railroads.  It was discovered that you could make money from money.  Then railroads that didn’t need to be built were built.  Abuse of the system caused the system to collapse. o The panic of 1873  People began speculating railroad, specifically the money going into them. o There was no regulation on the stock exchange that this time.  Banks started to fail.  The New York stock exchange closed for a series of days.  There were numerous factory layoffs.  This quickly became a national disaster.  The backbone of the economy, railroads, had failed. o There were three major factors in railroads.  Money  The investments going into the railroad projects.  Land  The government concessions.  Labor  Immigrants were the major work force on the railroads. o Chinese specifically because they were hired on for a cheaper rate. o This started worker to worker hostility.  Racism toward immigrants began.  Anti-Chinese work force  There was pressure on the government to do something about the immigration work force.  Laws were passed that prohibited Chinese immigration into the country.  The Chinese fought back.  Chinese companies appealed to the government, asserting themselves as Americans. o They bring up points such as they do things like every other American such as paying taxes.  Their appeals do not work.  In 1882, the Chinese Exclusion act was made.  This strengthened the laws forbidding any Chinese immigration. Lecture #6 – 1/28/16 More problems arise with the westward expansion. - The process of moving west o Pushed others to move further west. o Allowed Americans to occupy other lands.  The native tribes didn’t understand this because they didn’t have a concept of private land ownership. o This was a conflict between two peoples that saw the world differently. - Indian Removal o Louisiana purchase caused  The desire to move west into Indian territory.  Systems like economy, military, and politics made these new areas look more desirable.  Thomas Jefferson thought the conflicts between the two peoples could be worked out.  Civilizing the west offered a theoretical “home” for the native tribes, since Americans didn’t understand their customs.  Ultimately, the Louisiana perchance and expanding west created an ultimatum. (Get out or die) - Some Native Americans started taking on American customs. - Others fled to avoid conflict or relocation. - The majority went to war. o Native leaders feel a need for a final stand or to push back before it’s too late. - Andrew Jackson o He became president. o He brought the Indian removal to the central U.S. o Created the Indian Removal Act.  Government funding to move the five most civilized tribes.  These were tribes that Americans could most easily identify with and understand. - The trail of tears o This was a process moving Indian tribes to the great plains of Oklahoma. o Indians marched at gun point in the winter months to get there.  ¼ of them died in route. o The only thing this accomplished was to increase the hostility between the two sides. - Sand Creek Massacre o The government is breaking up native land and creating reservations.  Sand Creek was one of those reservations. o Gold was found in the area and Americans began to settle there. o When the Native people tried to surrender, the American army was ordered to massacre them in their sleep.  The sole purpose of this was to demonstrate to the Native Americans that it is pointless to resist. - Black Hills o This was religious land to the Indian tribes. o Battle at Little Bighorn  This was the last Native American victory.  Their victory proved to the rest of the American public that the Native Americans needed to be repressed. o Ghost dance  This was a spiritual movement.  The outcome believe by the Indians was that the earth would swallow the White people and revert their land back to the way it was.  The idea spread to all other Native Americans.  The U.S. government and the bureau of Indian Affairs saw this as a threat.  They saw it as military preparation.  They ensure that it is stopped. - Wounded Knee Massacre o Word of the ghost dance had spread there and when the leader refused to stop, the U.S. military killed him. o They then proceeded to slaughter the rest of his people. o This ended all future Indian resistance. - Other means of restricting the Indian population took effect. o Buffalo were hunted for their resources.  Hides.  Meat.  Mostly for entertainment. o This depleted one of the Indians major food sources. - The Dawes Act o Focused on breaking Indian reservations and allowed them private land allotments.  This broke up what was left of their societies.  This process was a way of trying to Americanize them. o Indian children were forced to attend Indian schools.  They were taken from their families.  Stripped of all traditions.  Americanized. o Their parents lost connections with them, they no longer had anything in common. This meant that they could not pass on their heritage. - The end of the Indian wars was the close of the Frontier o Manifest destiny had been completed.


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