Week 2 Notes for BZ 101
Week 2 Notes for BZ 101 BZ 101
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BZ 101 at Colorado State University taught by Karen M Raines in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2) in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
BZ 101 Notes Chapter 1 notes to come next week after I get my textbook Chapter 2- Organic Molecules - 2.4- Organic Molecules - Lipid= fat - Organic molecules always contain carbon and hydrogen atoms • Carbon atoms often share electrons with other carbon atoms forming long hydrocarbon chains • Attached to the carbon chains are functional groups • functional group- a group of atoms that is attached to a molecule that reacts/ behaves in a predictable way and contains certain characteristics - Macromolecules contain many molecules joined together • Monomers- simple organic molecules that exist individually - ex. monosaccharide, fatty acids, amino acid, nucleotide • Polymers- large organic molecules formed by combining monomers - ex. carbohydrate, lipid, protein, nucleic acid - Cells have common mechanism for joining monomers and degrading polymers • Dehydration Reaction- an -OH and -H are removed as a water molecule • Hydrolysis(water splitting) Reaction- the components of water are added, the chemical bond that is holding the monomers together is split by adding water. This includes chemical breakdowns in the small intestine. - 2.5- Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates- Function for quick fuel and short- term energy storage - Play a structural role in plants, bacteria, and arthropods - On cell surfaces are involved in cell to cell recognition (white blood cells use this to recognize whether or not a cell is supposed to be in the body) - Simple Carbohydrates also known as monosaccharides • ex.glucose, galactose, and fructose - Disaccharides (simple sugars) contain two monosaccharides. • ex. maltose, sucrose, lactose - Polysaccharides- long polymers that contain many glucose subunits • Starch- the storage form of glucose in plants • Glycogen- the storage form of glucose in animals (we store glycogen in our muscles and liver) • Cellulose- found in the cell walls of plants - 2.6- Lipids - Lipids- contain more energy per gram than other biological molecules and we have the ability to store lipids long term • Function as energy storage molecules • Insulate against heat loss • form protective cushions around major organs Form membranes • • Chemical messengers - Lipids are diverse in structure and function • One common characteristic is that they do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic) - Types of lipids include fats and oils, phospholipids, and steroids - A fatty acid is a hydrocarbon chain that ends with the acidic group • ex. COOH - Saturated fatty acids- have no double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms - Unsaturated fatty acids- have 1 or more double bonds between carbon atoms (not all the carbon atoms are completely surrounded by hydrogen atoms) - Trans fat means that the molecule is switched making it less healthy - Emulsiﬁcation- fat droplets disperse in water that were clumped together. Bile(we produce this) emulsiﬁes fats in our small intestine. • ex. soap and egg whites - Phospholipids- Comprised of 2 fatty acids + a phosphate group + glycerol • they are major components of cells membranes • They spontaneously form a bilayer in which the hydrophilic heads face outward toward watery solutions and the fails form the hydrophobic interior. The polar head faces the outside meaning that it is hydrophilic water soluble and the tails are non polar or hydrophobic that means that they are not water soluble. - Steroids- all have a backbone of four fused carbon rings • ex. cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen - 2.7- Proteins - Proteins- are polymers composed of amino acid monomers. Generally are very long and contain lots and lots of monomers - Proteins perform many functions: • Structural- Keratin and collagen • Enzymes Hormones- Insulin • • Transport molecules- Hemoglobin (found in red blood cells and transport oxygen) • Antibodies - Amino acid- contains an amino group (-HN2) an acidic group (-COOH) and and R group also known as the rest of the molecule (varies) • 20 exist in nature - Peptides- can be used interchangeably with protein and a peptide bond joins two amino acids - Polypeptide- a single chain of amino acids - Levels of protein organization: • The structure of the protein has at least 3 levels of organization (some have 4) • ex. Hemoglobin- protein that transfers oxygen throughout the blood - The ﬁnal shape of a protein is very important to its function Denatured- A protein loses structure and function due to hear or pH. Generally is • permanent - Polypeptide- a chain of amino acids • 2 or more polypeptides - Misfolded proteins- interferes with the function of the protein and can cause things like Alzheimer's - 2.8 Nucleic Acids - DNA- (deoxyribonucleic acid) stores genetic information in the cell and in the organism, 4 bases - RNA- (ribonucleic acid), 4 bases - Both are polymers of nucleotides - Components of a nucleotide • Phosphate • Pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) • Nitrogen- containing base (1 of 5) - DNA- • sugar (deoxyribose), bases(adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine), • • strands (double stranded with base pairing), • Helix (yes) - RNA- • sugar is ribose • bases are adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine • strands are single • helix no - ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)=adenine + ribose (adenosine) + 3 phosphate groups • high energy molecule (energy currency of the cell) • undergoes hydrolysis and energy is releases • enzymes are proteins which are crucial for hydrolysis - Last two phosphate bonds are unstable and are easily broken therefore they release energy - Hydrolization forms ADP (adenosine diphosphate) - ATP can be rebuilt (add P to ADP to make ATP) - Question: A _______ reaction occurs when two molecules of glucose combine to form a disaccharide molecule. • Answer: Dehydration - Question: The primary function of a carbohydrate is: • Answer: A quick fuel and short- term energy storage - Question: A ____ reaction occurs when two molecules of glucose combine to form a disaccharide molecule. • Answer: Steroids, lipid molecules, and hormones - Question: Proteins are polymers of? • Answer: Amino Acid - Question: DNA is a____? • Answer: Nucleic Acid Chapter 3: Cell Structure and Function - 3.1 - The cell - The cell marks the boundary between the nonliving and the living - The cell is the smallest structure capable of performing all the functions necessary for life - Cell theory - All organism are composed of one or more cells - Cells are the basic living unit of structure and function in organism - All cells come only from other cells - Surface area/volume ratio - The amount of surface area affects the ability to get materials in and out of a cell - As cells increase in volume, the proportionate amount of surface area decreases - All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane - The material inside of a cell is the cytoplasm - The plasma membrane regulates what enters and exits the cell - 3.2 Prokaryotic Cells - Lack a membrane- bounded nucleus - Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus - Humans are Eukaryotic organisms - 3 Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya - Generally unicellular • may be single, strings, or clusters - Not all bacteria cause disease some are beneﬁcial • - Question: Prokaryotic cells lack… • Answer :A true nuclei - Question: The ____ is the smallest independent unit of life • Answer: Cell - Question: What factor limits cell size • Answer: Surface area/ volume ratio - 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells - Are structurally complex - Have a nucleus - Possess membrane- bounded organelles - Animals, plants, fungi, and protists - Some Eukaryotic cells have cell walls - - Parts of the cell - The Nucleus - Contains chromatin • DNA and associated proteins - Nucleolus • Where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is made - Nuclear Envelope • Nuclear pores - Ribosomes • Site of protein synthesis two subunits (large and small) • • Subunits consist of rRNA and protein molecules • found attached to endoplasmic reticulum or free in cytoplasm - Endomembrane System • Consists of the nuclear envelope, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, and several vesicles(tiny membranous sacs) • Essentially the transportation and product- processing section of the cell • compartmentalizes cell - Endoplasmic Reticulum - Rough ER • Studded with ribosomes Processing and modiﬁcation of proteins • - Smooth ER • No Ribosomes • Synthesiszes phospholipids • various other functions • Liver cells have a lot of these - Golgi Apparatus • “post ofﬁce” of the cell collects, sorts, packages, and distributes materials such as proteins and lipids • • Proteins made RER have tags that serve as “zip codes” to direct Golgi apparatus where to send them - Lysosomes • Produced by Golgli Apparatus • Contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes • “Garbage disposals” of the cell • Break down unwanted, foreign substances or worn- out parts of cells • Important during development • Diseases? - Tay-Sachs(lysosomal storage disease) - Energy related Organelles - Life is possible only because of a constant input of energy - Chloroplasts (plants only) and mitochondria are the 2 eukaryotic membranous organelles that specialize in converting energy to a form the cell can use - Photosynthesis - Solar energy + carbon dioxide + water = carbohydrate + oxygen - - Only plants, algae, and cyanobacteria - Solar energy is the ultimate source of energy for most cells - Cellular Respiration - carbohydrate + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy - All organism convert chemical energy into ATP - ATP used for all energy requiring processes in cells - Mitochondria • found in all eukaryotic cells(including plants and algae) • site of cellular respiration • Contain their own DNA • All mitochondria come from your mother • Diseases? yes - 3.4 and 3.5 - The Cytoskeleton • Maintain the cell shape • Assists in movement of cell and organelles • Dynamic- assemble and disassemble • Three types of protein components - Microﬁlaments (Actin ﬁlaments) - Inermideiate Filaments - Microtubules - Centrioles • found in centrosomes of animal cells • Involved in the process of microtubule assembly and disassembly • form the mitotic spindle during cell division - Cilia and Flagella Hairlike projections that aid in cell movement • • In eukaryotic cells, cilia are much shorter than ﬂagella • Both are membrane- bound cylinders - 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules because of the 9 pairs of microtubules that surround a single pair of microtubules - Question- ribosomes are the sites of____ - Answer- protein synthesis - Question- the ____is often referred to as the “post ofﬁce” of the cell because it collects, modiﬁes and packages and sorts molecules - Answer- Golgi - Question- which organelle do we associate with ATP synthesis - Answer- Mitochondrion
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