Notes for Southeastern Indians
Notes for Southeastern Indians 21902
Arkansas Tech University
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Autumn Stewart on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 21902 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Rebecca Weiwel in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Southeastern Indians in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Notes for Southeastern Indians 1/25-29 Culture Area: The good- compares some cultures that are in similar enviroments - some groups in areas tend to share similar cultural aspects - great for referencing and comparing The bad- can possibly ignore enviromental and cultural diversity - guidelines for defining areas may be arbitrary - illustrates static cultures Regions of the Southeast:2 major physiographic regions - coastal plain -interior hughlands -these are divided by waterfalls(fall line) Paleo-Indian - 11,000 -11,500 years ago - fluted, lance-shaped spear points (clovis point) -hunted large animals(all of which are extinct now) Archaic -8,000 B.C. -started becoming gatherers -people started becoming sedentary -began making artifacts from polished stones both for decorative & practical use -fiber tempered pottery - proper burial of the dead starts to become a big deal Woodland -1,ooo B.C. - A.D. 700 - began seasonal cycles of regions as to not exhaust all resources 1 -pottery becomes widespred -rudiments of agriculture begin to appear -burial customs become incredibly elaborate -includes the building of the great mortuary mounds -the great mound builders(earth workers) emerge from this time - includes effigy mounds such as the serpent mound in Ohio -Indians showed preference for living near flood plains -"tropical" plants added to native plants -corn(maize), squash, gourds -poverty point, adena, and hopewell major sites Mississippian -A.D. 700-A.D. 900 - Cahokia is the major site -chiefedom political organization -no longer egalitarrian -heavy reliance on maize agriculture -places were settled year round allowing for farming Time Line = VERY IMPORTANT Paleo Indian 11,500-11,00 B.C. -> archaic 8,000 B.C. -> Woodland 1,000 B.C. - A.D. 700 -> Mississippian A.D. 700-900 Rituals and Beliefs -common categories of seperation(both symbolic and physical) - male/female - birds/four-legged/vermin(rats, squirrel, rabbit) -Fire/water(life and death) 2 -Balance is key -If your life is out of whack you've either angered a spirit or a witch has put a "curse" on you American Bottom ca A.D. 1000 -population growth -"Big Bang" of Cahokia and nearby centers -Cahokia becomes most politcally centralized community in prehistory of United States Other Chiefdoms -other powerful chiefdoms located in florida -share many structural features with chiefdoms of the interior southeast, but also different Rites of Passage -Birth -Marriage -Death -history of elaborate mortuary rituals -preparation of corpse, grave offering, extinguishing of fire in water -women: menstruation and child birth - powerful female nature during these times -avoidances necessary to avoid pollution(seclusion in menstrual huts, food avoidances during pregnancy) -Men: war honors and name earning -powerful male nature when going to war -social isolation for days before and after raids -ceremonies for war honors Purity and Balance in Curing 3 -misfortune and illness often attributed to human's impurit or acts to make things unbalanced -vengeful animal spirits often thought to be cause -herbal medicines used to combat(plants are human allies) Conjury and Witchcraft -conjury: use of oral formulas and ritual acts to affect spritual beings -used by normal people and ritual specialists -used for mundane purposes and unusual circumstances -tobacco often used -water, fire, and crystals used for divining -witchcraft: intriusically evil use of mystical means to cause human suffering and death -witches insides are crawling with lizards -punished by execution 4
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