Developmental Psychology, Physical and Cognitive Adolescence
Developmental Psychology, Physical and Cognitive Adolescence DEP3053
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Katz on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to DEP3053 at University of Florida taught by Darlene Kertes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Lecture notes 4-5-16 Adolescent Physical Development The impact of puberty and brain maturation on adolescent health Health issues in adolescence - Sleep deprivation o Sleep habits in adolescence: Need same amount of sleep as before (9 hours) Bedtime changes (biological changes//social habits like social media, parties, etc.) Sleep- deprivation affects achievement in school, mood problems, and high- risk behaviors (go with gut instead of spending time on rational thought) - Poor nutrition o Increased caloric needs o Poor food choices o Nutritional deficiencies like iron - Reckless driving o Texting o Injuries increase during adolescence #1 fatal: cars 40% of deaths age 15-19 High speed Alcohol Seat belts #2 Fatal: Guns Can be accidental or intentional - Reckless sexual behavior o Highest rates of STDs among all ages across lifespan o 20% U.S. teens do not use contraception o Reasons for not using: Concern about image Adolescent risk taking Forced intercourse - Teen pregnancy o 740,000 girls annually in the US 1/3 of those pregnancies are terminated 86% of couples are not married o Adolescent parenthood Educational achievement Marital patterns Economic circumstances Prenatal/birth complications o Shows like Teen Mom glorify situation - Drug and alcohol use o Substance abuse and use is widespread and rises over adolescence o Patterns Minimal experimenters Use to abuse “gateway” drugs o Antecedents and consequences of substance use/abuse Many factors in abuse: Personal: antisocial Environmental: less parental supervision, peer pressure Consequences: Anxiety, depression Antisocial personality disorder Other psychiatric conditions? Phases of adolescence - Early (11-14 years old) o Rapid pubertal changes o Changes in parent and peer relationships More conflict with family - Middle (14-16 years old) o Puberty nearly complete o Rapid brain development o Focus on increasing independence - Late (16-18+ years old) o Achieves adult appearance o Assumes adult roles Hormonal changes in puberty - Growth hormone and thyroxine o Increases ages 8-9 - Androgens o More in boys o Testosterone - Estrogens o More in girls o Adrenal estrogens Individual differences in timing of puberty - Hereditary - Environmental factors o Nutrition o Exercise o Affects body weight and fat (girls) - Geographical location, socioeconomic status, ethnic group - Early family adversity o Abuse in home o Divorce o Early parental loss - Secular trend o Children growing at more rapid pace than in the past (they hit puberty earlier now than in prior generations) Psychological and emotional reactions to puberty - Varies by cultural experiences o Preparation o Public shaming of girls o Initiation ceremonies Quincenera - Adolescent moodiness o High schoolers show more dramatic changes in their mood throughout the week - Parent- child conflict (more of it) o Most frequent in early adolescence o Most intense in mid- adolescence o Resolving by late adolescence o Grossly overestimated in the media Consequences of the timing of puberty - Early maturation o Boys Popular Confident, independent Positive body image o Girls Unpopular Withdrawn, low confidence, negative body image More deviant behavior - Late maturation o Boys Unpopular Anxious, talkative, attention- seeking Negative body image o Girls Popular Sociable, lively Positive body image Factors in reactions to timing of puberty - Physical attractiveness body image o Sex differences in ideal o Impact on self- esteem - Fitting in with peers o Peer preferences based on physical maturity o Early maturation + economically disadvantaged neighborhoods = more risks - Long term consequences o Early maturing girls Brain development in adolescence: Phylogeny and ontogeny - Primitive brain: self- preservation, aggression - Intermediate zone//limbic system: emotions - Rational brain//neocortext: intellectual tasks (memory, moral compass, etc.) - These three sections mature in order from top to bottom ( primitive first and rational last) - White matter increases, gray matter declines o Pruning continues o Myelination speeds up o Improved cognition - Frontal and emotional parts of brain o Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) o Amygdala The teen brain around age 15 - Feelings affect behavior o Maturing frontal-limbic circuits Emotion- processing centers (amygdala) grow and connect Frontal lobes make new connections to emotional centers Synaptogenesis and pruning continues o Implications Moderation of feelings on behavior Emotions impair decision making - Attention and focus gradually improve o Maturation of prefrontal cortex Attention Filter out distractions Shift attention between topics o Implications Sharper mental focus Carry out multiple functions, not all with the same efficiency The teen brain around age 20 - Thinking ahead o Prefrontal Cortex: reorganization, pruning of synapses Increased efficiency Decreased flexibility to change later o Hippocampus Boosts memory o Implications Anticipate, think ahead Making a “mature” brain? o New fibers in language and “association” areas Learning and reasoning o Increased myelination Information processing speed affected Happens through about age 32 o Implications More complex and thoughtful behavior “Maturity” Consequences of rapid brain development in adolescence - Especially vulnerable to damage - Behaviors that have been adopted are difficult to eradicate - Recreational drugs hinder storage of new info - Vulnerable to mood disorders - “use it or lose it” principle is especially applicable during this time Summary of lecture: - During adolescence the brain becomes more efficient at certain tasks, but comes at the price of decreased flexibility - Changes in brain’s emotional- social network outpace development of cognitive control network o Experiences are more intense o Pleasure and novelty- seeking o Impulsive, risk- taking behavior Lecture notes 4-7-16 Cognitive development in adolescence Cognitive advances of adolescence - Abstract thinking (imagine how things could or might be) - Ability to think about relationships among mentally constructed concepts - Metacognition (thinking about their thoughts and cognitive activity) - Reasoning hypothetically o If this then that o Related to abstract thinking - Planning ahead Concrete vs formal operations - Formal o Hypothesizing o Hypothesis testing o Deduction o Cognitive advances are due to new ability to use principles of propositional logic o Allows adolescents to think abstractly o Does not need to be thought, emerges naturally with maturity o Example: all mammals are warm blooded. A whale is a mammal, therefore, a whale is warm blooded. o Evaluating formal operations: Criticisms: Is it a qualitatively new way of thinking? o Yes but it’s not a very sudden shift, it emerges gradually How pervasive is it in adolescents’ thinking? o Not completely, becomes less so as adolescence continues Can it be taught? o To some degree Is it universal? o Not so much because it seems to be more culturally specific Defenders of Piaget Cognitive competence vs cognitive performance Several reasons why adolescents may not use formal operations What does cross-cultural data suggest? Is not observed as much in societies where there is no formal schooling - Concrete o Seriation o Classification o Reversibility o Conservation o Decentering o Transitivity - Propositional thought o Evaluating logic of statements Children: only by considering them against concrete evidence in the real world Adolescents: verbal propositions Information- processing improvements in adolescence - Attention - Inhibition - Memory strategies - Knowledge - Metacognition - Cognitive self- regulation - Speed of thinking and processing capacity The ability to engage in scientific reasoning - Coordinating theory with evidence - Improves with age o Childhood through adulthood o Individuals vary o Skills develop gradually with experience - Contributing factors o Working memory o Exposure and instruction o Metacognitive understanding o Open- mindedness Role of social experiences in cognitive advances - Direct instruction - Trying out ideas in discussions and debates - Schools - TV viewing Media, multitasking, attention, and learning - Engaging in 2+ media activities at once o Music, TV, internet o At- home studying or classrooms - Effects of media multitasking o Fragments attention span o Filtering out irrelevant stimuli difficult o Reduced learning Consequences of adolescent cognitive changes - “adolescent egocentrism” inability to see difference between one’s own point of view compared to an objective conception of reality - Self- consciousness and self- focusing o Imaginary audience o Sensitivity to criticism o Personal fable Belief that their experiences are so unique that no one else has had or experienced them before - Idealism and criticism - Planning and decision making o Rely on intuitive judgements o Overwhelming options o More likely than adults to choose short- term over long-term goals o Related to adolescent brain development Adolescent changes: school learning Language development in adolescence - Vocabulary o Add abstract words - Grammar o Master irony and sarcasm o Grasp figurative language, proverbs o Use more elaborate constructions - Pragmatics improve o Improved capacity to adapt to social context Sex differences in intellectual performance - Highly controversial - No differences in general intelligence - Differences observed in specific mental abilities - Social factors o Childhood toys ( what they play with how they play with them) o Types of interactions with adults Adults tend to elaborate more with girls than boys o Stereotypes and stereotype threats - Verbal abilities o Girls Score higher Advantage in reading/writing increases over adolescence Biological advantage (earlier brain development) and more verbal stimulation o Widening gender gap in higher education U.S. college students 42% male, 58% female Trends in doctoral programs - Mathematical abilities o Boys Score higher, particular to abstract/spatial Early exposure to spatial toys o Gender differences in computer use Gender gap General tests: either none or small Reduced in recent years Mostly seem among highest achievers Boys/girls reach equal levels of math/science classes Differences in STEM careers School transitions in adolescence - Grades decline o Higher standards o Less supportive teaching- learning environment - Lower self- esteem o Girls more than boys - Non- academic issues o Compounds risk Helping adolescents adjust to school transitions - Parental o Parent involvement in school activities (PTO) o Monitoring o Gradual autonomy - Schools o Emphasize mastering material o Classes with familiar peers o Smaller units within school o Warm teacher- student relations o Student participation Phases of vocational development 1 Fantasy period a Early and middle childhood b Fantasize about careers 2 Tentative period a Ages 11-16 b Evaluate interests, abilities, and values 3 Realistic period a Late adolescence to adulthood b Explore careers and crystalize category Holland’s personality types - Investigative - Social - Realistic - Artistic - Conventional - Enterprising Factors influencing vocational choice - Personality - Family influences - Teachers - Gender stereotypes - Access to vocational information
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