HIST 2020 - Week 1 Notes
HIST 2020 - Week 1 Notes Hist 2020
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jonesy on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 2020 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by J. Nelson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Survey of United States History II in History at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Reconstruction (1865-1890) Union Gen. William Sherman marched to the sea near the end of the Civil War o During the march he destroyed railroads, towns, roads… essentially anything important to the South. o His march mainly took him through Georgia and North Carolina The official Confederate surrender took place at Appomatox Court. After the War: The South was left with tremendous devastations to their cities and countryside o In 1865, the South was already somewhat barren; the war only made it worse The South’s death count was so high that mass trenches had to be dug as mass graves. o More than 258,000 Confederate soldiers had died during wartime. This figure accounts for roughly 20% of the total US population at the time As a reaction to this high death toll, ritualized mourning became a practice. This includes wearing black until re- marrying. Abraham Lincoln was the President during the Civil War o He was from Kentucky o Was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford Theatre on April 15, 1865 John Wilkes Booth was an actor at the Ford Theatre and actually had hoped to not only kill Lincoln, but also to kill his entire cabinet Lincoln’s assassination led to the formation of the Secret Service, devoted to keeping the president safe o Contrary to popular belief, Lincoln did not believe in the full equality of the races. He did, however, believe that everyone deserved freedom. The Emancipation Proclamation freed roughly 4 million slaves o Some of the slaves had fought in the Civil War (on both sides) o Their newfound freedom meant they could marry and own land Despite this freedom, many blacks had nowhere to go. They would often simply stay with their previous masters as sharecroppers or renters. Slaves were unable to marry because it was forbidden by law for anyone to sell a man’s wife or family; to counteract this, plantation owners simply forbade their slaves to marry o One result of the Emancipation Proclamation was the founding of Juneteenth (June 19 ), which is celebrated as Freedom Day. One goal of Reconstruction was to put blacks in Congress and politics in general o The Freedmen’s Bureau was founded in 1864-1865 as a way to spur black education Many universities were established as a result of the Bureau, such as Bowie State Univ., Howard State Univ., Morehouse Univ., and Fisk Univ. o Southern whites (especially poor whites) were furious about emancipation. As a result, lynchings began to occur more and more frequently The poor whites were especially angry because they had once had hopes of owning plantations and slaves of their own. Now they had to compete with the newly freed blacks for jobs. The KKK was founded in Pulaski, TN in 1866 as a way to try and intimidate blacks from exercising their new rights. Port Royal Experiment (1865) o Black families were implanted on an island to see how a completely black society would function o Once the war ended, the community refused to leave the island After Lincoln’s assassination, Andrew Johnson (Lincoln’s Vice President) was elevated to the Presidency. o Johnson seemed to share the same views as Lincoln towards Reconstruction at first He soon came to sympathize more with poor whites than newly emancipated blacks o Black Codes (AKA Jim Crow Laws) began to appear in many Southern states to further control blacks’ lives The End of Reconstruction There are two types of Presidential Reconstruction I. Presidential Reconstruction II. Congressional Reconstruction Presidential Reconstruction Started with President Lincoln, and continued by President Andrew Johnson o Johnson wanted to elevate poor whites, rather than fight for more black rights. o Congress was also not unified at this time; Reconstruction had divided it o Johnson was unwilling to compromise with Congress on essentially any issue, and often vetoed any bills sent his way from Congress Johnson even accused Congress of attempting to “Africanize” the South When Johnson was re-elected, he removed any military leaders that tried to enforce Reconstruction policies. It is important to note that at this time, the South was occupied by Union troops Johnson came from humble beginnings, which could possibly be a reason for his insecurity and stubbornness. He was from Greenville, TN and spent his youth working as a tailor The Southern Burden o Due to the many damages as a result of the Civil War, the South was very slow to industrialize, and often bought manufactured goods from the North o The Civil War had forced both poor blacks and poor whites into a situation where they were uneducated, unskilled, and for the most part unable to improve their current situation 1865-1875 Legislation o 14 Amendment: passed with 2/3 vote in Congress in 1866 This Amendment limited states who had unequal representation of blacks and whites to a certain number of representatives o Civil Rights Act of 1875 Prohibited racial discrimination in public accomodations Congressional Reconstruction Ulysses S Grant was elected the 18 President of the US in 1869 o He was very popular due to his heroism during wartime o He proved to be better on the battlefield than in the courtroom; he had difficulty commanding respect from the politicians around him Grant Administration o Grant made the mistake of awarding those who financially supported him positions of leadership, which is an early example of the spoils system This practically guaranteed corruption This also forced Grant to support many leaders that bribed, misappropriated funds, etc. This mistake cost him the re-election Rutherford B Hayes o 1876, Hayes was actually not elected as a result of Southerners using fear tactics to keep blacks away from the polls. The republicans were furious o This leads to the Compromise of 1877, which stated that legislators would agree to end Reconstruction in return for appointed Hayes as the President o Southern states gladly welcomed this compromise. They wanted to focus on economic reform/industrialization rather than social reform Reasons for Reconstruction’s Failure o The Northerners were becoming more and more jaded to the idea of Reconstruction in the face of ongoing racial violence o The Southern states were so economically devastated from the war and their lack of industrialization that they simply couldn’t recover Blacks often couldn’t own land and were intimidated from exercising their newfound rights o Political throat-cutting and corruption kept much from being accomplished Beginning of the “New South” New South – campaign led by Henry Grady to spur industrialization and urbanization of the South Reasons for South’s Slow Recovery from Civil War o They hadn’t industrialized yet o They were very lacking in public education; the majority of the people were uneducated o They had an “isolated work force” Southern industries included o Textile factories o Cigarette factories o Steel mills Agriculture in the New South o Aside from planters, there is a growing group of renters and sharecroppers, though the large landowners are still in power Despite Henry Grady’s condemnation of slavery and his popularity among Southern states, Jim Crow laws continued to prosper and spread racism and segregation Plessy vs. Ferguson o Homer Plessy was a man that was only 1/8 black. He decided to break the law and not move to the “blacks only” car on a train ride. He was arrested and put on trial o Albien Tourgee is hired by the Citizens; Committee of African Americans and Creoles to represent Plessy in court o The jury ruled in his favor, stating that: Segregation is illegal in all cases Segregation is constitutional if the amenities available to the races are of equal quality o Despite the Plessy vs. Ferguson ruling, Jim Crow laws will remain in effect until well into the Civil Rights movement, and obviously there was no effort made to keep both races’ amenities of equal quality Examples of “Black Codes” include: o “No colored barber shall serve as a barber to white women” (GA) o “Blacks cannot be buried in the same area of ground set apart for whites” (GA) o “The races could not play baseball within two blocks of the other race’s school or playground” (GA) o “Interracial marriage shall be prohibited” (AZ, MS, FL) o Tennessee’s black codes included: While nobody could be excluded from UT, accommodation and instruction was kept separate The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) was founded in 1909 by o W.E.B. DuBois o Booker T. Washington o Charles Johnson Religion played a very important role in the lives of blacks. o Religion was the one institution that whites could not infringe upon. Thus, the church became a stabling factor for black communities. o The lack of limitations or parameters allowed for full freedom of expression o Religion also gave blacks hope for a better future, if not in this life then in the afterlife promised to them
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