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Week 4 Notes

by: Sarah Doberneck

Week 4 Notes History 1B

Sarah Doberneck

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Notes from week 4 of lecture. Includes information about the crusades and church reform
Introduction to Western Civilization: Circa A.D. 843 to circa 1715
Dr. Mcclendon
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1B at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Mcclendon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Circa A.D. 843 to circa 1715 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
 Historians have always been very critical of the European crusaders  Said to be a long war of intolerance and ignorance  On the 900th anniversary there was a reconciliation walk  The pope asked for formal forgiveness for the excesses of the crusades  Many colleges and organizations have changed their mascot from the crusaders because of the negative connotations Pope urban II  Selfish Turks disrupted the usual order of the Muslims holding Jerusalem and the Christians visiting when they wanted to o They defeated the Byzantines, who then appealed to the pope for assistance in 1071 o Pope was busy with the investiture controversy so he didn't help o In 1075, another power appealed to him and the pope preached the crusade  Most urban people didn't think much about the crusades or care so to speak o They knew that the Muslims thought Christ was a prophet, but it wasn't clear how they fit in with Christianity  Council of Clermont 1095 o Preached that Christians should go and defend the church and reclaim Jerusalem o He promised a plenary indulgence for those who participated and died in the crusade, was the remission of all sin and the first instance of this o People got very excited about the call, and it seems like the pope hadn't thought it through very well  1096 o Four large armies ascended under papal leadership o Probably 10,000 men each, mostly composed of French soldiers o The armies split up and decided to meet at Constantinople, where they thought they would be warmly welcomed  However, the Byzantines didn't to want to reclaim Jerusalem they just wanted money and food for troops o Thy were extremely unruly in contrast to the disciplined Byzantine army o Ordinary people in Constantinople were forced to offer room and board to the crusaders o Many people died from disease, hunger, or fighting each other o However, they were able to defeat the Turkish armies o They established Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and Jerusalem o There wasn't a unified force of Muslims, some allied with the crusaders Knights of St. John (hospitallers) Knights of the Templars (Templars) Edessa  The state of Edessa fell, prompting the second crusade 1147-1149 Conrad III, Louis VII, and Baldwin III (of Jerusalem)  Couldn't agree where to go or what to do  This lack of unity contributed to the failure to recapture Edessa  Also, the Turkish forces were a lot stronger  Did not crush the zealous spirit of the Christians Third crusade  Prompted by the recon quest of Jerusalem in 1887  Still have high profile leaders around Europe joining this crusade o Frederick Barbarossa o Richard I (lion heart) o Philip Augustus  Frederick Barbarossa decided to take a land route to Jerusalem, which left the troops decimated. Frederick also died on the way  Richard and Augustus made it to the outskirts of Jerusalem, couldn't agree on anything and fought the whole time. So they got mad and just went back  Richard was taken prisoner by the Holy Roman Empire, and England had to pay a ransom to get him back Fourth crusade (1198-1204)  Called by pope innocent III  There was no dramatic/tragic event that led him to call this crusade  Some argue that he called it to reinvigorate religious life in Western Europe  The church was having a problem with Heresy at this time  Even the monastic wing wasn't living up to its ideals  They were supposed to go to Jerusalem and recapture it, ended up in Constantinople Fifth crusade against the Egyptians, didn't amount to much, marked the end of pope involvement By the 13th century, the crusading has waned significantly However, it's still a hot topic  Seems to go against the morals of Christianity  Thought to be unprovoked  White supremacy, religious intolerance Crusades resulted in the persecution of European Jews as well  Until the crusades, the two groups lived together and were peaceful  The first crusaders attacked Jewish towns and settlements in France Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229)  Having a common belief system became increasingly important  With the intensification of Christianity the boundaries between orthodox and unorthodox became clearer and sharper  Increasingly troubling to authority of the church  Pope innocent III first sent preachers to the albigensians to try and reign them back in, but it didn't work so he called a crusade on them. It was very cruel and very bloody Reasons people went  A lot of religious zeal  Some wanted land/money, especially the second born sons  Promise of indulgences if you died  Shifting fighting spirit from fighting each other to uniting against a common enemy Emergence of the mendicant orders and contemplative orders  They were trying to restructure the church for its benefit  Quest for a deeper spiritual experience  They went out into the secular world to preach Mendicant Order Francis of Assisi  Gave up his aristocratic standing after having a series of religious experiences that urged him to follow a more simple life style  Showed his change by stripping off his clothing, which was a way to give everything he had been given back to his father  Lived a very poor life, attracted a lot of followers  Orders of Friars minor o Franciscans  Lived among ordinary people  Preached and helped the poor  Did missionary work to try and improve the quality of Christian life o Novitiate  The structure of the church set by Francis before his death  Reemphasized the idea of living in poverty o Eventually falls apart over disputes about property and people not liking how the leaders were acting  Dominic de Guzman o Concerned about the Albigensian heresy, thought that persuading people with a new religious order would stop heresy o Received papal approval for the orders of the preachers, or Dominicans. Sometimes called black Friars o Took vows of poverty but their chief purpose was preaching o Schools taught Friars so they could go teach correct Christian doctrine o Elaborate structure of government o Born out of his desire to save the church from its enemies  Clare of Assisi o Daughter of an aristocrat o Found the Franciscan message very attractive. She wanted to withdraw from an arranged marriage, peach, and live in poverty o Francis thought it would be unseemly to have women begging in the streets and preaching o Founded the poor Clare's, where they would work in leprosy wings and stuff  Dominican opened up ranks to women as well  Beguines o Communities of women who lived in poverty together, but didn't take religious vows o Free to leave at any time o Arose with a Belgian woman drawn to high ideals of poverty and service  Renounced her marriage and gave away all her possessions to work I'm s leper colony o Didn’t quite spread to England o Only all women group/monastery o Some argue that there was a surplus of unmarried women at this time, and dowries were Too expensive so women turned to this o It also could be a true that they were truly interested in this lifestyle Heretics  Challenges to the church become palpable  Peter Waldo o Sold everything he had and gave it to the poor o Embarked on life of poverty Dan preaching o Had been a wealthy merchant, attracted a substantial following known as the waldensians. Were recognized by the pope o Started to become more radical in their preaching o Attached the church for its wealth, preached without licenses o Labeled as heretics and weren't able to be eradicated Cathars  Albigensian's  Spiritual descendants of Mani, a 3rd century preacher who taught about extreme ideas o Abstained from all flesh Jews  Associated with money lenders. However, it was only a small segment of Jews that did this  Envy Jewish community had a school o High literacy rates o Produced well known scholars, contributed to every field of study  Church councils prohibited marriage between Jews and Christians, sharing meals, Jews couldn't go to Christian doctrine or hold Christian slaves  Oppressed during the crusades o Charged obscene prices for simple things o Papacy started to act against Jews o Forced to attend Christian sermons o Rigged debated about religion where the Christians won o Animated an anti-semitism that has proved to be open of European worse legacies from the Middle Ages o Expulsion of Jews from a variety of regions


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