American Politics: Week 3 of Notes
American Politics: Week 3 of Notes POLS 1110 - 003
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POLS 1110 - 003
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makayla Prince on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1110 - 003 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Jason Giersch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see American Politics in Political Science at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
American Politics Notes week 3 Defining Federalism ● What is federalism? A way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have authority over the same area ● Unitary System Power given to central government ● Confederation A weak national government; power given to the states ● Intergovernmental relations How the levels of government work with (or against) each other Comparing Government ● Unitary Government (most common) The central government is superior to the subunits and is the governing unit ● Federal Government (next most common) Central government and the subunits share equal power ● Confederal Government (least common) Subunits are superior to end control of the central government Constitutional Basis: Division of Power ● States retained many powers Organize local governments and elections Ratify Constitutional amendments Equal Representation in senate Constitutional Basis: Powers Denied to the States ● States cannot: Declare war Tax imports or exports Coin money Grant titles of nobility etc. States’ Obligations to Each Other ● States must provide other states with: Extradition (people cannot run away from crime by moving states if caught, states are obligated to move assailant back to the state where they were originally charged for their crimes) Privileges and immunities (except for tuition and voting) Full faith and credit (issue: samesex marriage) Constitutional Basis: Division of Power ● Federal obligations to states Cannot divide states Cannot tax interstate exports Must protect states against invasion Overlapping responsibilities Courts, law & order, financial regulations, health, etc. Federal Powers ● Enumerated Powers (Article 1, section 8) Declare war Coin money Tax ● Implied powers McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Elastic Clause National Supremacy ● Which level should do what? Debates over areas of policy responsibility ● Supremacy Clause ● Civil War ● The struggle for racial equality ● 10th amendment “Reserved Powers” ● 11th amendment “States’ Immunity” ● Commerce power Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) Promote economic development Regulate economic activity Expansion then retraction of federal authority From Dual to Cooperative Federalism ● Dual federalism Separate spheres of authority Interpret federal power narrowly “Layer cake” representation ● Cooperative federalism Shared costs Federal guidelines Shared Administration “Marble cake” representation ● Cooperative federalism in action: Schools Highways & state alcohol laws Devolution? ● Party divide on federalism Democrats favor national government Republicans favor states’ government ● Devolution since Reagan Loosening federal regulations 1994 congress Harnessing federal government power Fiscal Federalism (financial federalism) ● The Grant System ● Categorical grants Specific purpose Crossover sanctions: conditions (i.e. compromising drinking age for highway funds) Crosscutting requirements ALL requirements must be met to receive any of the grant Project grants by application Formula grants by criteria ● Block grants 1994 Congress Diversity in Policy ● Diversity in public opinion reflected ● Policy innovation facilitated ● Diversity has its downside Why help the poor? Keeping up with the neighbors Federalism and Democracy ● Contributions to democracy Decentralizes politics Disputes resolved at lower levels of government Majorities can be heard at state level More opportunities for participation Losing elections is less painful ● Detriments to democracy Electoral College Thwarting national majorities Federalism and the Scope of the National Government ● Why national government grew Economic intervention Industrialization Quotas Subsidies Preventing monopolies Occupational health and safety Urbanization Housing Social welfare
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