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American Politics: Week 3 of Notes

by: Makayla Prince

American Politics: Week 3 of Notes POLS 1110 - 003

Makayla Prince
GPA 3.2

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These notes cover everything in week 3
American Politics
Jason Giersch
Class Notes
american politics
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makayla Prince on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1110 - 003 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Jason Giersch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see American Politics in Political Science at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.


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Date Created: 01/31/16
American Politics  Notes­ week 3    Defining Federalism  ● What is federalism?  ­ A way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have authority  over the same area  ● Unitary System  ­ Power given to central government  ● Confederation  ­ A weak national government; power given to the states  ● Intergovernmental relations   ­ How the levels of government work with (or against) each other    Comparing Government  ● Unitary Government (most common)  ­ The central government is superior to the subunits and is the governing unit  ● Federal Government (next most common)  ­ Central government and the sub­units share equal power  ● Confederal Government (least common)  ­ Sub­units are superior to end control of the central government     Constitutional Basis: Division of Power  ● States retained many powers  ­ Organize local governments and elections  ­ Ratify Constitutional amendments  ­ Equal Representation in senate    Constitutional Basis: Powers Denied to the States  ● States cannot:  ­ Declare war  ­ Tax imports or exports  ­ Coin money  ­ Grant titles of nobility  ­ etc.     States’ Obligations to Each Other  ● States must ​provide other states with:  ­ Extradition (people cannot run away from crime by moving states­ if caught, states are  obligated to move assailant back to the state where they were originally charged for their  crimes)   ­ Privileges and immunities (except for tuition and voting)   ­ Full faith and credit (issue: same­sex marriage)  Constitutional Basis: Division of Power  ● Federal obligations to states  ­ Cannot divide states  ­ Cannot tax interstate exports  ­ Must protect states against invasion  ­ Overlapping responsibilities  ­Courts, law & order, financial regulations, health, etc.     Federal Powers  ● Enumerated Powers (Article 1, section 8)  ­ Declare war  ­ Coin money  ­ Tax  ● Implied powers  ­ McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)  ­ Elastic Clause     National Supremacy  ● Which level should do what?  ­ Debates over areas of policy responsibility   ● Supremacy Clause  ● Civil War  ● The struggle for racial equality  ● 10th amendment­ “Reserved Powers”  ● 11th amendment­ “States’ Immunity”  ● Commerce power  ­ Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)  ­ Promote economic development  ­ Regulate economic activity   ­ Expansion then retraction of federal authority     From Dual to Cooperative Federalism   ● Dual federalism  ­ Separate spheres of authority   ­ Interpret federal power narrowly  ­ “Layer cake” representation   ● Cooperative federalism  ­ Shared costs  ­ Federal guidelines  ­ Shared Administration   ­ “Marble cake” representation   ● Cooperative federalism in action:  ­ Schools  ­ Highways & state alcohol laws    Devolution?  ● Party divide on federalism  ­ Democrats favor national government  ­ Republicans favor states’ government  ● Devolution since Reagan   ­ Loosening federal regulations   ­ 1994 congress  ­ Harnessing federal government power     Fiscal Federalism (financial federalism)  ● The Grant System  ● Categorical grants   ­ Specific purpose   ­ Cross­over sanctions: conditions (i.e. compromising drinking age for highway funds)  ­ Cross­cutting requirements­ ALL requirements must be met to receive any of the grant   ­ Project grants­ by application   ­ Formula grants­ by criteria   ● Block grants   ­ 1994 Congress     Diversity in Policy   ● Diversity in public opinion reflected  ● Policy innovation facilitated  ● Diversity has its downside  ­ Why help the poor?  ­ Keeping up with the neighbors     Federalism and Democracy  ● Contributions to democracy  ­ Decentralizes politics  ­ Disputes resolved at lower levels of government   ­ Majorities can be heard at state level  ­ More opportunities for participation   ­ Losing elections is less painful   ● Detriments to democracy   ­ Electoral College  ­ Thwarting national majorities     Federalism and the Scope of the National Government   ● Why national government grew  ­ Economic intervention   ­ Industrialization   ­ Quotas  ­ Subsidies  ­ Preventing monopolies   ­ Occupational health and safety  ­ Urbanization   ­ Housing   ­ Social welfare  


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