History 10 Week 6 Lecture Notes
History 10 Week 6 Lecture Notes Hist 10
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nancy Notetaker on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 10 at University of California Riverside taught by Steve Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see World History in History at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Week 6 | 02/09 (T) Outline Empire 31 BC- 476 AD Constantinople 330 Pax Romana 31 BC - 180 AD Visigoths 376 Anarchy 180 – 284 AD Adrianople 378 Diocletia 284 – 305 Theodosius I 391 Constantine I 306 – 337 Rome 410 Maxentius Romulus Agustus 476 Milvian Bridge 312 Byzantine 1453 Milan Edict 313 Roman Empire lasted ~500 years • 31 BC Octavius (aka Augustus) defeated Antonius and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium o Antonius and Cleopatra committed suicide, Rome absorbed Egypt Marking the END of the Roman Republic and the BEGINNING of the Roman Empire § the main difference between the two was that the Empire was a monarchy ruled by one man (Emperor), Octavius was then Rome’s first Emperor, even though there was still a senate the Emperor was the one with all of the power ú Octavius never took the title of “Emperor”, he tried to hide his power but controlled everything behind the scenes ú One he is Emperor he makes changes to the Roman State & brings the Roman Revolution to an end, inaugurating the Golden Age of the Roman Empire aka the Pax Romana Pax Romana: “Roman Peace” (peace and prosperity), lasts ~ 200 years • During this period the Roman Empire reached it’s greatest extent (territory) • Sadly, all good things must come to an end and in 180 AD the Pax Romana comes to an end, sparking the beginning of the Anarchy o During Anarchy things were awful bc: 1) constant civil war bc Roman Generals were constantly rebelling against the Emperor ú Emperor commands one big army, but the emperor cannot be everywhere at once so he is forced to delegate Week 6 | 02/09 (T) authority. Meaning that other generals command armies scattered throughout the empire. Problem? It was difficult for the Emperor to control the generals that were stationed far away SO what happens on a regular basis is that a Roman General would decide “Hey I want to be Emperor” so he would go to the soldiers, promises them wealth and riches IF they help make him Emperor and TA-DA Civil War • If the General WINS: He has to deliver everything that he promised his soldiers (if he didn’t he would probs be assassinated & someone else would be emperor) and then if all is well then eventuall another General would decide “Hey I want to be Emperor” and the whole cycle would start over again During the period of Anarchy this occurred constantly 2) During this time, Rome faced major invasions from the outside, mostly attacks from the North and from the East ú North: German Barbarian Tribes | East: Sasanid Empire ú The Sasanid Empire = New Persian Empire • ~ 500 Years since Alexander conquered Persia so the Persians were ruled by the Greeks for a while • The Greeks were eventually overthrown by the Parthians, BUT eventually the Persians overthrew the Parthians and were able to establish this new Persian Empire o the Persian Kings claimed the were decedents from the original Persian Kings (Darius/Xeres) and the also claimed to rule all of the lands that were in the Old Persian Empire They thought that the Gods wanted then to take over these lands SO they began to fight the Romans for land ú Roman Emperors were being killed, kidnapped, enemy armies reached Italy (first time in centuries), etc. Week 6 | 02/09 (T) basically things were really bad, BUT things eventually do turn around when a new Emperor takes over: Diocletian Diocletian: came from a poor peasant family, enlisted in the army, starts working his way up through the ranks, becomes general, assassinated the emperor & takes the throne • once he is on the throne he manages to survive, ruling for 21 years o he made a huge # of changes to the Roman State and the Roman Army o he was able to successfully prevent more Civil Wars while also defending Rome against invasion o he reestablished peace § with peace the population began to rise and the economy began to recover meaning Diocletian saved Rome • In 305 Diocletian does something unprecedented, he retires (this never happens) he gives up power and steps down o Almost immediately Rome is plunged into another civil war, this civil war would have a huge impact on world civilization After Diocletian retires, 306 AD, we see the dramatic rise of Constantine I • Constantine was a Roman general stationed in Britain, he decided he wanted to be emperor, so he gets his troops to support him and the proclaim him Emperor of Rome Problem? 6 other people were also claiming to be Emperor SO Civil War it is…again J o eventually it comes down to Constantine and Maxentius § They fight it out at The Battle of the Milvian Bridge (the bridge is located in Central Italy) ú The day before the battle, Constantine is in his camp praying asking for help in order to be able to win • According to Constantine as he was praying he saw a huge flaming cross appear in the sky with the words “In this sign you will conquer” Constantine did not understand what this meant, he didn’t understand the significance of the cross or the words on it BUT that night as Constantine slept, he was visited in a dream by Jesus Christ, Jesus explained to Constantine all about the religion of Christianity: o the Christian God, He explained who He was, and Jesus explained the significance of the cross Week 6 | 02/09 (T) Jesus told Constantine that he had to put the sign of the cross on his shields, banners, and carry the cross into battle Jesus promises Constantine that if he does this, puts his faith in God, he will win: In sight of the cross he will conquer ú Constantine believes he has the answer, does what Jesus told him, carries the cross into battle and CONSTANTINE WINS THE BATTLE OF THE MILVIAN BRIDGE Maxentius is killed. Battle of Milvian Bridge is important bc : • Constantine is now Emperor • marks the first time Christianity is used for military purpose • bc Constantine believes he won with the help of the Christian God, Constantine issues the Edict of Milan o Edict granted religious freedom to everyone in the Roman Empire § Almost from the beginning the Romans had always persecuted the Christians, but the Edict of Milan grants religious freedom to everyone INCLUDING the Christians § For the first time in history Christians can worship freely without fear of persecution (Christians were persecuted for many reasons, but mostly bc they refused to worship the Goddess Roma bc Christians only believe in one God) § Once Christianity is legalized it’s popularity sky-rockets, people begin converting left & right Constantine did not convert until he was in his death bed BUT he raised his sons as Christians SO when Constantine dies and his sons take over they are now Rome’s first Christian Emperors (also first in history) § In 391 Roman Emperor Theodosius I made Christianity the only religion of the empire ú every other religion was outlawed, so now Christians began persecuting those who did not convert After 391 Rome was a Christian Empire • the states that came after Rome would also adopt Christianity • Europeans would then export Christianity across the world, allowing it to become a world religion Constantine was important bc: 1) Religion: Christianity Week 6 | 02/09 (T) 2) Constantine established a new capital which he called “New Rome” but everyone else called it “Constantinople” aka the city of Constantine o he established this new capital in the East bc at this time the East was far more valuable than the West, (almost everyone lived in the East, most of the wealth was in the East, all the cities (big) were in the East ) and bc of this Constantine wanted his new capital in the East o Geographically he chose the spot for the city very well § Constantinople quickly became the biggest & wealthiest city in the empire § Before the invention of gun powder, Constantinople could not be taken by attack ú the city was on a Peninsula (surrounded on 3 sides by water) and it was completely surrounded by huge walls The fall of the empire consisted only of the fall of the Western Empire, the West had very few people, & no money so they couldn’t really have an army • the fall of the Western Empire took a century (376-476) • Trouble began with the arrival of a German Barbarian Tribe aka the Visigoths o they entered the Roman Empire in 376, two years later the Visigoths fought the Romans in the Battle of Adrianople (378) § In a huge upset the Visigoths defeated the Roman army, the Romans were not able to recover from the defeat and the Visigoths began roaming around the empire Romans were unable to stop them ú Eventually the Visigoths arrived in Italy and in 410 the Visigoths captured Rome • this was the first time in ~800 years that a foreign enemy captured Rome • the Visigoths success showed how weak Rome was in the West so tons of barbarian tribes came pouring in o Western Empire was now divided into a half dozen German Barbarian Kingdoms (btw all these German Tribes eventually adopted Christianity) In 476 the last Western Roman Emperor (Romulus Augustus) is kicked out = end of the Western Empire • As a result of all of this Western Europe is plunged into a long Dark Age Week 6 | 02/09 (T) • The Eastern Empire survived for almost another thousand years, it would be known as the Byzantine Empire
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