NFS 043: Fundamentals of Nutrition
NFS 043: Fundamentals of Nutrition NFS 043
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilly LaFleur on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFS 043 at University of Vermont taught by Farryl M. Bertmann in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Lecture January 26, 2016 Lecture 3, Chapter 2 Standards + Guidelines *MyPlate.gov Nutrient Recommendations: Standards for healthy people’s energy + nutrient intakes DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes, (U.S. + Canada) values: RDARecommended dietary allowances Goals of DRI: Establish safety guidelines AI:Adequate Intakes UL: Tolerable Upper Levels EAR: EstimatedAverage Requirements AMDR:Average Requirements Distribution Range RDA: solid experimental evidence, will meet needs of almost all healthy people AI: Scientific evidence + educated guesswork, when there is insufficient evidence to create a RDA *used to haveAIs for Calcium, since has been updated for these critical nutrients EAR: Facilitating nutrition research + policy requirements for life stages + genders *should be close to meeting half of the populations needs ex) school lunches, senior eating plans UL: Identification of potentially toxic level, danger zones, UL shows your healthy max amount AMDR: Calorie % ranges, INtake ranges for energy-yielding nutrients Expressed as % of total Carbohydrate: 45-65% of Kcals Fat: 20-35% of Kcals Protein: 10-35% of Kcals (PRO) Keep in mind: there are differences among people, put DRI recommended intakes into perspective, DRI are designed for healthy people Establishing DRI values - an RDAexample: Balance study, accounting for needs, making a decision EER: *not set by DRI (Estimated Energy Requirement) Reflects a balancing act (energy with support of health + life) No UL for energy - different for every individual Daily Values - error rate: 20% found on food labels Apply to the ‘average’person (2,000 calorie diet) Allow for comparisons among food - not nutrient intake goals - Have not changed in response to new research - DRI values have changed over the years Dietary Guidelines forAmericans science based advice promote health reduce risk of obesity FOOD not supplements Balance calorie + physical activity to achieve a healthy weight Key Guidleines: 1) Follow a healthy eating pattern across lifespan 2) Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount. 3) Limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and reduce sodium. 4) Shift to healthier food + beverage choices 5) Support healthy eating patterns for all *Sustainability was pushed - but not received *New dietary guideline proposed Limited eggs, alcohol Increased legumes, fruits + veggies Encouraged: Veggies, whole fruits, grains- atleast 50% whole grains, fat-free or low-fat dairy, legumes What you should limit: sat fats, added sugar, sodium Drink Equivalent: (amount)x(% of alcohol) ____________________ = # of drinks 0.6 fl oz. (drink equivalent) HEI: Healthy Eating Index - yields a score (currentAmerican diet: 58/100) *many need to reduce calorie intake More beans, fruits/veggies needed MyPlate.gov : helps people achieve goals for a healthy diet can be individualized specific portions Lecture January 28, 2016 Food Groups The Basics - 5 Groups Grains: Make sure at least 50% of your grains are whole grains. (entire grain kernel) ex) whole wheat flour, brown rice, oatmeal Refined grains remove the bran and germ, making them less nutritious Enriched grains are when some nutrients are put ‘pack in’But, what is it really? Veggies & Fruits: Make 50% of your plate whole fruits and vegetables Dairy: Key consumer message: Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk Proteins: Choose lean/low fat meat + poultry select sea food legumes (double purpose - also count as a veggie) Oils: Fats liquid at room temperature Choose oils that are high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, + low in saturated fats. *Coconut oil is an exception Empty Calories: Currently,American’s diet consists of 35% or more of empty calories, in reality it should be 10% or less SoFAs: Solid fats, added sugars, + calories, 0 nutrients Enjoy your food, but eat less! Avoid oversized portions Drink H2O rather than sugary drinks Choosing nutrient dense food nutrient density solid fats added sugars Concept of Discretionary Calories: Discretionary (calorie allowances) Weight (maintenance vs. nutrient supplies) Sources Nutrient-dense foods Physical activity guidelines 16-17 y/o - 60 min or more daily 18-64 y/o - at least 150 minutes a week 64+ Older - as physically active as their abilities and conditions allow Diet PlanningApplication USDAMyPlate Amounts need form each food group U.S. trend toward colossal helpings HUGE servings Controlling portion sizes at home + away Portion size may be harder to judge, U.S. Trend Examples of proper portions: cheese = 4 die, meat = deck of cards, pasta = baseball, peanut butter = golf ball Exchange Systems Useful to almost everyone - especially those trying to cut down Checking out food labels common/usual name manufacturer contact info net contents nutrient contents (Nutrition Facts Panel) Ingredients - must be listed in descending order Health warnings Manufacturers will break sugar down into spirit ingredients, so they don’t have to list it first More about %s of Daily Values (based on 2,000 cal diet) 2 Types of Daily Values some are intake goals to strive for some constitute healthy daily maximums Daily Values greatest use: comparing foods Claims on food labels nutrient claims: food must meet criteria claims on food labels - structure/function claims, requires no prior approval, notification of FDAis sufficient, required label disclaimer - loop holes Examples of possible structure/function claims for dairy products ‘Superfoods’ Blueberries: antioxidants, chocolate: flavonoids, antioxidants, flaxseed: lignin + phytoestrogens, garlic: antioxidant, organsulfur compounds.
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