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SPMT 320 Week 2 Notes

by: Isabelle Anonas

SPMT 320 Week 2 Notes SPMT 320 002

Isabelle Anonas
GPA 3.006
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About this Document

This is what was covered in class
Psychology of Sport
Jordan Goffena
Class Notes
SPMT320, sports, Psychology, cognitive, motor, Schema, Social Cognitive Theory, Coaching, week, notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabelle Anonas on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPMT 320 002 at George Mason University taught by Jordan Goffena in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Sport in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 02/01/16
SPMT320 28 January In Class Motor Learning, Social Cognitive Theory, & Sport Expertise Learning- a long-term change in mental representations or associations as a result of experience Capability- athletic potential  Motor learning cannot be seen, but performance can be Fitts & Posner Schema (contemporary cognitive theory) – closely connected set of ideas or concepts related to a specific object or event Motor program (motor pathways) – not a coach’s program; neuronal pathways being practiced that is associated with the athletic skill Cognitive -> Associative -> Autonomy Cognitive  Not much experience if any  Athlete focuses on gaining understanding of how the skill is performed  Mostly internal: thinking and getting used to how the movement feels  Coach directs step-by-step procedure  Short duration Associative  Awareness: proprioception  Usually longer period of time  Still focuses on learning and developing motor program  Focus on creating deeper neural connections  Proprioceptive control – spatial feeling accompanying developing motor program  Role of Coach  Provide framework for practice, but gives athlete more choice/freedom of learning  Coach is still in control, but more guidance rather than teaching how to think and feel o Closed skills: fixation, focus on one thing at a time, deliberate concentration o Open skills: diversification, focus on connections of multiple schemas, kinesthetic awareness Autonomy  More skillful  Automatically use motor program (fully developed)  Little thought needed to perform skill  Focus on strength and proprioception  Coach is still in control but more for feedback Practice Strategies Coach feedback | Consistent vs. Bandwidth*** Practice Construction | Blocked vs. Random*** Practice Type | Top-down (whole) vs. Bottom-up (part)*** Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) Cognitivism Behaviorism Social Cognitive Theory Social Learning Theory  Knowledge acquired through observing others  Learned through social interactions with others and prior experiences o SCT posits that learning occurs in a social context with a dynamic and reciprocal interaction of the person, environment, and behavior Reciprocal Causation Person Environment Behavior General Principles of SCT  People can learn by observing others’ behaviors and the consequences of that result  Learning can occur without a change in behavior  Cognition plays an important role in learning  People can have considerable control over their actions and environments  Modeling provides social cues for learning o Live model, symbolic model, & verbal instruction.  Characteristics o Competence o Prestige/ power o Gender-appropriate behaviors o Behavior is relevant to situation  Conditions o Attention o Retention o Motor Reproduction o Motivation -DISCUSSION- The flaw in Fitts & Posner’s classic model of motor learning was because everyone learns differently and at different paces. Everyone has different prior experiences. Someone may be naturally athletic. Coaches should adjust accordingly for individuals. Sport Expertise  Simon and Chase 10 year rule  Takes 10,000 hours of practice to reach mastery level of performance o Physiologist: 10,000 hours to reach genetic potential o Psychologist: 10,000 hours to reach mastery level, but can surpass if determined  Deliberate sport practice requires many hours of high effort and specific skill development related to how the athlete performs the skill in the particular sport  ***Method of Decision Training works congruently with deliberate practice o coach teaches kinesthetic skill to maintain cognitive effort Aspects of Decision Training (DT) 7 Tools of DT (Vickers, 2007) – variable practice – random practice – bandwidth feedback – questioning – video feedback – hard-first instruction and modeling – external focus of instruction. 6 Constituents of DT (Martens, 2012) – teach tactics in whole–then the parts – have the athletes observe decision making in others – have athletes observe themselves – variable practice – control feedback – ask questions


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