inadequate parenting style --> dsm
inadequate parenting style --> dsm PSYCH 3830
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Hensel on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3830 at Clemson University taught by Pam Alley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
o Inadequate parenting styles § Baumrind's four parenting styles § Authoritarian • Impose strict rules • Expect absolute obedience • Use harsh punishment • Permissive § Permissive • Submit to child's desires • Make few demands • Use little punishments § Authoritative • Exert control by establishing rules and consistently enforcing them • Explain reasons for rules • Encourage open discussion § Rejecting/neglecting • Disengaged • Expect little and invest little § Studies have found that children with the highest sel-esteem, most self-relience, and greatest sense of control over their own lives tend t have warm concerned, authoritative parents § Divorce § About half of the children born in the past few decades wille xperience their parents divorce and spend an average of 5 years in a single parent home • Usually mom is the custodial parent § Children in intact families § Children in divorced families • More likely to have social academic and behavioral problems that children in intact families • Adult children are more likely to experience social, emotional, or psychological problems than adult children of intact families • More likely to be in lower SES • More likely to have their own marriage end up in divorce § Children with stepfamilies • Boys in stepfamilies are more likely to accept a stepfather and benefit from his presence than girls in stepfamilies • About 75% of women who divorce are likely to remarry, about 80% of men are likely to remarry • Most commonly mom, stepdad, and mom's biological children • About 15% currently living in a blended family § People report being happier and more satisfied immediately after a divorce • Remarriages are more likely to fail than the first marriage § Maladaptive peer relationships § Popularity SOCIOCULTURAL THEORIES AND CAUSAL FACTORS OF ABNORMALITY • Overview o More focused on the social components that are more broad: § Lower SES § Unemployment § Social change and uncertainty § Violence § Homelessness o These are not mutually exclusive --> they overlap a lot of times o Result in the increase of stress that can increase the sociocultural causal factors (ex: lower SES causes more stress and can cause more psychological problems) • Also note that when individuals experience a mental disorder, they are more likely to move into a lower socioeconomic group, become unemployed, have increased difficulty adjusting to social change and uncertainty, experience more violence, and become homeless --> in other words it is a two-way street INTERACTIVE THEORIES OF ABNORMALITY Clinical Assessment ASSESSMENT INTERVIEW • Face to face interaction in which a clinician obtains information about various aspects of a clients life o Work history, home history, ever been hospitalized, every tried to commit suicide o Based on self-report which may not be the most reliable o (ex: structured interview - predetermined set of questions; unstructured interview- minimal structure, a lot of open-ended questions interview) • Structured interviews are generally more reliable • Unstructured interviews allow you to gather important information that you may not have gathered in structured interview • Lots of times clinicians will use both CLINCIAL OBSERVATION • Direct observation of the client's appearance and behavior (ex: are they dressed for summer when its cold out, are they clean-shaven, are they limping, are they hostile, are they shaky) GENERAL PHYSICAL EXAMINATION • Medical evaluation of a client to assess physical symptoms (ex: x-rays, vision screenings, hearing screenings) NEUROLOGICAL EXAM • Medical examination of client to determine the presence and extent of organic brain damage o (ex: brain wave abnormalities --> EEG, structural abnormalities --> cat scan or MRI, functional abnormalities --> PET scan or fMRI) READ IN THE TEXTBOOK BECAUSE SHE WILL ASK ABOUT THIS NEURPSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION • Overview o Psychological batter of tests that assess a client's cognitive, perceptual, and motor performance to identify extent and location of brain damage o Used to detect behavioral and psychological impairments due to organic brain abnormalities --> these brain abnormalities may be detected via neuropsychological exams before they are evident on the neurological exams • Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery INTELLIGENCE TESTS • Test used in establishing a client's level of intelligence • Classification of intelligence tests o Achievement test - designed to asses what a person already have learned, that is their current level of competence o Aptitude tests - intended to predict your ability to learn a new skill, they are designed to predict a person's future performance or one's capacity to learn o Individual test - administered to one individual at a time, buy one test o Group test - administered to a group of individuals, all at the same time and place • Psychometric properties o Standardization - process of establishing norms for a test (ex: paper with a 32 or 92, we don't know which is better) • Administer test to representative sample • Obtain norms • Compare test scores to norms o Reliability - consistency over time • Test-retest reliability - expect some relationship between your two scores • Internal consistency - expect some relationship within the test (ex: look at odd numbers vs. even numbers) o Validity - degree to which test measures what it purports to measure • Valid tests are reliable but reliable tests are not necessarily valid • Wechsler tests of intelligence o Most commonly used tests of intelligence o Each test is made of a verbal component and performance component o Versions of the Wechsler tests • Wechsler primary and preschool scales of intelligence (WPPSI) - 3-6 years old • Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC) - 6-16 years old • Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS) - 16 and up o Wechsler subtests • Verbal § § Comprehension --> common sense § Vocabulary --> define a bunch of words (this would be the best subtest to give to measure IQ) • Performance § Block design - make colored blocks look like a picture (visual and performance skills) • Get bonus points for going faster o Interpreting Wechsler scores • End up with overall IQ, verbal IQ, and performance IQ • Average score is 100 § About 68% is between 85 and 115 § 2% score above 130 --> cut off for giftedness § 2% score below 70 --> cut off for mental disability § About 96% will score between 70 and 130 PROJECTIVE PERSONALITY TESTS • Overview o In using projective personality tests, individuals are asked to respond to ambiguous stimuli, in that there is no right or wrong answer, their responses are thought to be a projection or reflection of: • Underlying traits • Preoccupations • Conflicts • Coping techniques • Motives • Rorschach test o Developed by Rorschach in 1911 o Projective test that utilizes inkblots to elicit information on a clients personality • Involves considerable training to administer and interpret • Has minimal reliability and validity o Ambiguous stimuli are inkblots --> not real pictures o Not used as much today • Not very reliable or valid • Exner --> information about him in textbook o Has computer technology --> does increase reliability of the test but perhaps still not enough (insurance will not reimburse you) • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) o Constructed in 1930's by Morgan and Murray o Projective test that utilizes ambiguous pictures to elicit information on a clients personality • Still used in clinical practice and personality research • Has minimal reliability and validity o Ambiguous stimuli --> nonspecific pictures OJECTIVE PERSONALITY TESTS • Overview o Can be questionnaires, rating scales, etc. o More easily quantifiable --> greater reliability • Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) o Most widely used personality test for both clinical assessment and psychopath research in the US o Used in many other countries • Updating the MMP § MMPI (1943) and revision MMPI-2 (1989) is what we use now • Empirical keying § Used in selecting items for the original MMPI § Came up with a bunch of statements and administered them to multiple groups: • Normals: individuals that did not have any known diagnosis • Homogenous groups: group of individuals who were believed to be depressed, schizophrenic, etc. § "I am easily awakened by noise" - no obvious relationship to any psychological problem § Did a bunch of analysis to see which statements differentiated the normals from the homogenous groups § Do not necessarily indicate disease --> just differentiates the groups • Clinical scales - assesses one's propensity to respond in ways that are psychologically deviant § 10 of them (depression, hysteria, schizophrenia, paranoia, etc.) § Just because you score high on the scale doesn’t mean you have the disease; you just share some characteristics as the people who have the disease • Validity scales - measures the individual's tendency to respond to the questions honestly § Try to asses how accurate the person's responses § (ex: "What other people think of me does not bother me." If you say true, that is probably unlikely so your validity score goes down) • Profile - graphical depiction of an individuals MMPI scores on the clinical and validity scales § Plot the scores from the clinical scales to create profile INTEGRATION OF ASSESSMENT OF DATA • Need to put it in to some kind of cohesive assessment • Try to come to an understanding and diagnoses • Then you will come up with the best treatment plan DSM:DiagnosticandStatisticalManuel TWO MAJOR PSYCHIATRIC CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM • International classification of disease system (ICD) o Created by the world organization o Typically used in other countries, not the US • Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM-5) o Written by the APA o Used in the United States as the standard o DSM-5 came out in May 2013 --> goals was to make them more similar • Similar in many ways, but different in others BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DSM • DSM-1 o Came out in 1952 • DSM-2 (1960's) o Updated it but not a significant amount • DSM-3 (1980's) o Introduced a number of new methodological changes • Came up with explicit diagnostic criteria for each disease in the DSM • Introduced multiaxial system for diagnosis - included 5 different axes • More descriptive; a-theoretical --> not based on any theory --> strictly identifies facts • DSM-3-R (1987) • DSM-4 (1990's) • DSM-4-TR (2000's) • DSM-5 (2013) o Did away with the multiaxial system of classification o Added psychological disorders o Took away psychological disorders o Rearranged categories of psychological disorders MAJOR DIAGNOSTIC CATEGORIES o Includes 22 major diagnostic categories, organized across the lifespan • Early in life (neurodevelopmental disorders)(ex: learning disorders, ADHD) --> adolescence and young adulthood (depressive disorders) --> later in life (neurocognitive disorders)(ex: Alzheimer's) • One of these categories, called Other Conditions That May Be A Focus of Clinical Attention includes conditions that do not constitute a disorder but may be the focus in clinical practice (ex: someone who lost a parent who just needs someone to talk to and benefit from talking to a counselor [not a psychological disorder because we expect someone who loses someone close to them to be upset and grieving]) o Non-axial documentation of diagnosis TYPES OF INFORMATION INCLUDED IN THE DSM-5 • Diagnostic criteria - guidelines for making diagnoses o Individual has to meet all the diagnostic criteria to be diagnosed with a disease • If the individual is meeting most of the criteria but not all, they can be diagnosed with "unspecified (disorder)" - catch-all's for people that you don't know what to do with them § Very common in personality disorders o A person can be diagnosed with more than one diagnosis (ex: schizophrenia, learning disability, and paranoia --> more than one is possible) o Gender differences, age of onset, prognosis, etc. • Subtypes - variants of the same disorder o Not all disorders have subtypes, but many do (ex: ADHD - predominantly inattentive/hyperactive, impulsive/or combined presentation) • Specifiers - indications of the severity, course, and/or the descriptive features of the disorder o Severity - mild, moderate, severity o Course - in partial remission o Descriptive features - with peripartum onset • Associated features - relevant clinical and physical features associated with the diagnosis o Not needed to be present to get the diagnosis • Prevalence -available information on the frequency of the disorder • Development and course - typical patterns in both the onset and evolution of the disorder o Onset - when the disorder most typically begins (ex: most typical time of onset for depressive disorder is mid-20s) o Prognosis - Remission? Continually disintegrating? Waxing and waning? • Risk factors - factors that put an individual at risk for developing a disorder o Temperamental - part of our personality that may be inherited; temperament - individuals way of approaching or reacting to a situation o Environmental - all of those that are non-genetic; occur either while still inside the mother's womb or after the child is born o Genetic and physiological - genetic - inborn influences • Gender-related diagnostic issues - relationship of gender and the development of the disorder (ex: autism is more common in boys) o Also will include different symptom patterns that we see between males and females • Functional consequences - consequences of a disorder on the overall functioning of the individual • Differential diagnosis - comparison of similar disorders so as to assign the best dianosis NONAXIAL DOCUMENTATION OF DIAGNOSIS • How it used to be o Axis 1 - clinical syndromes o Axis 2 - personality disorders and/or intellectual disability o Axis 3 - medical condition o Axis 4 - overall functioning o Axis 5 - psychosocial stresses • How it is now o Instead of axes, you just make a list • Still uses the same information as before o Basically, just not organized in the same way