human biology Hum biol 102-0002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara barber on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hum biol 102-0002 at University of Wisconsin Green Bay taught by james marker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin Green Bay.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Chemistry of Life 2. Structure and organization of matter A. Atoms- fundamental particles of matter a. Nucleus- Composed of: i. Proton (+) ii. Neutrons b. Electrons (-) B. Atomic math a. Atomic number = #protons = #electrons b. Atomic mass= #protons + #Neutrons C. Isotope-an atom of an element that has a greater or fewer neutrons than the common atom of that element a. Carbon (C12) has 6 protons and 6 neutrons b. (C14) has 6 protons and 8 neutrons Note: may or may not be radioactive D. Molecule- 2 or more atoms bonded together a. H2O b. C6H12O6 E. Element- (pure) substance with only one type of atom a. O2 3. Chemical bonding A. Magic number is 8 a. Covalent bonds- “sharing” electrons b. Ionic bonds- give and take c. Hydrogen bonds- weak try to pull electron 4. organic vs. inorganic chemistry B. Historical perspective- a dichotomy of matter a. Organic substances- products or byproducts of living organism b. Inorganic substances- compounds obtained from minerals C. Contemporary definition of organic substances a. Organic- carbon containing compounds i. Consistent with original definition ii. Most but not all compounds in living organisms are carbon based or organic 1. Glucose 2. Fat 3. Muscle 4. Cholesterol b. Inorganic- non carbon based compounds 5. Inorganic biochemistry A. Water-H2o a. Excellent solvent for both inorganic + organic molecules i. Provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place ii. Provides a medium for transporting compounds in the body b. Important for regulation body temp B. Acids a. Substance that donates a hydrogen ion when put in water C. Bases a. Substance the donates a hydrogen when put in water D. Strong vs. weak Acids and Bases a. Strong acids and bases can be corrosive E. PH – scale indicating the reactive acidity or alkalinity or a solution F. Buffer- chemical that stabilizes PH a. Solution can be buffered at almost any PH b. Does not imply neutralizing a solution c. Important because small change (+/- .5) in PH can dramatically alter chemical reactions in body G. Ions- charged atom or molecule a. Ions in solution are called Electrolytes b. Electrolytes are important for biological processes especially the conduction of nerve impulses H. Trace elements- play a role in a number of physiological activities I. Free radicals- compounds that contain an unpaired electron a. Tend to damage tissue b. “neutralized” via substances known as anti-oxidants 6. Organic biochemistry A. Proteins- fundamental organic molecules of living organism a. 20 different types of amino acids b. Size ranges from peptides to macromolecules c. Protein shape is complex and elaborate and is very important to overall function d. Significance i. Structure- hair, muscle, connective tissue ii. Function- enzymes- biological catalysts that increases the rate of chemical reactions iii. Make up significant parts of the biochemical B. Carbohydrates-“Sugar”- very important fuel source for CNS a. Monosaccharides- simple sugars i. Glucose- primary sugar used for energy ii. Fructose- fruit sugar iii. Galactose- (part of lactose) b. Disaccharides- Two monosaccharides linked together i. Sucrose (Glu+Fruct) Table sugar ii. Lactose (Glu+Gal) Milk sugar iii. Maltose (Glu+Glu) malt sugar c. Polysaccharides- a polymer made of simple sugars i. Starch- storage form of CHO in plants ii. Glycogen- storage form of CHO in plants iii. Cellulose- plant CHO polymer, a form of fiber iv. Note- the basis for the strikingly different chemical properties of these polymers of glucose relates to HOW THEY ARE HOOKED TOGETHER d. Lipids- Chemically defined as a substance that is soluble (will dissolve) in a nonpolar solvent i. Neutral fat- basic plant and animal fat ii. Function- steroid compounds- from cholesterol to testosterone to estrogens- contribute in many ways to our proper function iii. Steroids- define chemically as any version of a specific 4 ring structure 1. Function- act as hormones and other important molecules in the body such as cholesterol e. Nucleotides- chemically made up of a nitrogen base i. Nucleic acids- “polymers” of nucleotides bases involved in storing and implementing the genetic code 1. RNA- Ribonucleic Acid 2. DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid ii. High energy compounds Quiz 2 PET- Positron Emission Tomography Tracks and detects cancerous cells Structural- building material for cells and tissue Enzyme- speeds up chemical reaction Transport- carries substances in body fluids or moves them into or out of cells Movement- produces movements of cells and cell part Regulator- adjusts cells activities Receptor- binds molecules to or inside cells Defense- assists in immune responses and other bodily defenses Free radical- can easily attract an electron from a stable molecule When large numbers are present in the body, they pose serious threat to many cell molecules including genetic material DNA Antioxidants Lycopene- tomatoes, strawberries, watermelon Vitamin C and Flavonoids- citrus fruits, cantaloupes, plums Lutein zeaxanthin- leafy greens
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