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Grounded in Theory

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by: Jordan Derby

Grounded in Theory 10300

Marketplace > Ithaca College > 10300 > Grounded in Theory
Jordan Derby
GPA 3.595

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About this Document

First set of notes for 10300 Intro to Strat Comm with Howard Kalman
Intro to Strategic Communications
Howard K. Kalman
Class Notes
Strategic Communications
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Derby on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10300 at Ithaca College taught by Howard K. Kalman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Grounded  in  Theory       Communication  -­‐    “the  relational  process  of  creating  and  interpreting  messages  that  elicit  a   response  “  Griffin,  Ledbetter,  &  Sparks  (2015,  p.6)     Fundamental  Features  of  Communication :   1. People  (senders/receivers/theorizers)   2. Messages  –  the  creation  and  interpretation  of   3. Symbols  –  the  uses  and  meaning   4. Channels/Medium   5. Noise/Interference   6. Contexts  and  Social  Locations**     Communication  Encompasses :   • Intrapersonal  –  self  communication   • Interpersonal  –  between  more  than  one  person   • Group/Team   • Public   • Intercultural   • Media  and  New  Technologies   • Organizational  (Focus  of  Stat  Comm)     Seven  Theoretical  Traditions :   1. Socio-­‐psychological:   Interaction  and  influence   2. Cybernetic:   Information  processing   3. Rhetorical:   Public  address  and  persuasion   4. Semiotic:   Meanings  are  in  people;  language  (signs/symbols)  help  for  shared  meaning   5. Socio-­‐cultural:   Reality  is  socially  constructed  through  micro  level  interactional  processes     6. Critical:   Concerned  with  power  dynamics  and  inequalities   7. Phenomenological:   Experiences  and  dialogue       Fundamental  –  users  of  technology,  uses,  mediums,  contexts/locations   Area  of  Research  –  new  media  technologies   Semiotics  –  meanings  are  in  people;  language  (sign/symbol)  help  for  shared  meaning;  what   is  the  meaning  of  technology?     Intel  Make  it  Wearable  Campaign  (look  up  YouTube  video)   • Intel  and  Genevieve  Bell  =  Technology  and  Anthropology  “marriage”   o What  is  the  meaning   of  technology  in  people’s  lives?     What  Theories  So :   • Sharpens  our  perception  by  focusing  our  attention   • Clarify  observations     • Provide  a  framework  of  understanding   o Social  Penetration  Theory:   § Symbol:  Onion  -­‐  each  layer  is  a  part  of  you,  the  deeper  you  go  the  more  vulnerable   you  are   • Predict  Outcomes   • Trigger  Social  Change   • Spark  Research     Theories  of  Strategic  Communication:       Helps  us  to  differentiate  “the  importance  of   communication  in  the  strategic   communication  process  as  opposed  to  the  strategic  organizational  process  that  does  not   necessarily  revolve  around  communication”  (Holtzhausen  &  Zerfass,  2014)     Theories  in  CMD:   • Organizational  and  Corporate  Communication   • Learning     • Management   • Design   CMD:   • Scientific  management,  classical  human  relations/resources,  cultural=  how   organizations  organize  and  people  manage   • How  People  Learn=  behavioral,  cognitive,  emotionally;  individually  ( identity);   implications  for  training   • Design  Thinking=  to  enhance  user  experiences  of  media   a. Empathy   b. Collaboration   c. Proto-­‐types       Theories  in  IMC:   • PR   • Media  planning     • Marketing     • Advertising     IMC:   • Information  Processing=  attitude  change   • How  to  get  People’s   Attention  and  How  People  Filter  Messages   • Cognitive  Dissonance     • Buyer  Behavior   • Message  Design       Communication  Domains  (Typology):   • Human  Communication :   o With  self  (intrApersonal):  body  language   o With  others  (intErpersonal)   o Within  group   o Across  cultures     • Organizational  Communications :   o Communication  within  organizations   • Corporate  Communication :   o External  communication  (branding,  image,  reputation)   o Internal  communication  (keeping  employees  informed)   • Strategic  Communication:   o Goal-­‐Driven  Communication     Definitions  of  Communication :   • “Shared  meaning  created  among  two  or  more  pe ople  through  (non)verbal   transaction”   • “Process  of  constructing  shared  realities”   • “The  act,  by  one  or  more  persons,  of  sending  and  receiving  messages  that  are   distorted  by  noise,  occur  within  a  context,  have  some  effects,  and  provide   opportunities  for  feedback”     What  is  Theory?:   • All  theories  are  abstractions:   o Organize  &  clarify  human  experience   o Extend  our  knowledge   o Stimulate  and  guide  research   • Goals  of  Theory:   • To  explain  (make  sense  of)  a  phenomena   • To  predict  future  outcomes     Theory  vs.  Model:   Theory   Model   Explains  a  naturally  occurring  phenomenon Representation  of  some  phenomenon   Educated  guess  about  how  something  works Explains  how  something  works   -­‐  shows   interrelationships  between  parts   Predicts  a  future  outcome       Theory-­‐Model  –  it  can  be  both     Five  Perspectives  in  Communication :   • Theories  of  Rhetoric :   o Emphasis  on  message  construction   § Words  chosen,  phrasing   • Transmission  Theories :   o Channels  for  moving  content   o Encoding/Decoding   • Interaction  Theories:   o Group  development  and  interactions   o Social  interactions   • Transactional  Theories:   o Negotiated  interchanges   o Communication  as  a  system  of  interchanges   o Emphasis  on  both  content  and  relationship   • Psychological  Theories :   o Effects  of  individual’s  conceptual  filters   o Socio-­‐cultural  “fields  of  experience”   o Search  for  meaning     Communication  Models:   • Shannon-­‐Weaver:   o Linear  Model   o Problem:  no  feedback  all  one  way   • Interactive-­‐Transactional   o Communicators  create  and  interpret  messages   within  personal  fields  of  experience   o Both  parties  receive  and  send   • Model  of  Strategic  Communication:   o Analysis   § Context  +  Audience+  Message+  Channel   o Strategic  Intent   § Selecting  Goals   o Strategic  Action   § Crafting  prototypes  (messages)   § Implementation   o Tracking-­‐Evaluating  Results     Coding:   • Encoding   o Sender  consciously  attaches  meanings  to  symbols  form  feelings  and   ideas   • Decoding   o Receiver  interprets  and  creates  an  understanding  of  the  message     Noise:   • Affects  sender’s  message   • Types  of  Noises:   o External   § Factors  outside  of  the  receiver   o Physiological   § Biological,  personal  factors   o Psychological/Cognitive   § Internal  framing  (accuracy  of  schemas)     Environment:   • Physical  surroundings   • Cultural  background   • Context:  Past  personal  experience   • It  influences  how  we  encode  and  decode  messages     Axions  of  Communication :   • Dynamic   • Continuous   • Circular   • Unrepeatable   • Irreversible   • Complex      


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