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lecture 5

by: Olivia Lee

lecture 5 PSY 35000 - 002

Olivia Lee
GPA 3.65

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lecture 5 notes
Abnormal Psychology
David Rollock
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Lee on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 35000 - 002 at Purdue University taught by David Rollock in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Chapter 2: An Integrative Approach Class #5 th January 22 , 2016 Neuroscience Contributions to Psychopathology • The Field of Neuroscience – The role of the nervous system in disease and behavior – Two main influences: • Role of neurotransmitters in psychopathology • Role of brain regions in psychopathology Organization of the Nervous System Central Peripheral Nervous System Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Somatic Autonomic The Neuron • and/or transmit information to other cellso receive, process, Neuroscience Basics Figure 2.5 Neural Transmission of information 5 Major neurotransmitters implicated in psychopathology • Norepinephrine (or noradrenaline) (NE) – Activating system – Beta-Blockers - block beta pathways, reduce NE – Used for hypertension and social anxiety • Propranolol • Serotonin (5-HT) – Regulates behavior, mood, and thought – Low levels = impulsivity, aggression – SSRIs increase serotonin, effective for anxiety, mood, and eating disorders • Zoloft, Celexa, Paxil Major neurotransmitters implicated in psychopathology • Dopamine (DA) – Activity associated with pleasure—Basal Ganglia – Antipsychotics affect this system • Risperdal, Haldol, Zyprexa – Implicated in Addictions, schizophrenia • Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) – Tends to reduce activity/inhibit behavior – Benzodiazepines act on this system • Valium, Xanax, Klonopin, Ativan – GABA activation REDUCES anxiety, aggression • Excess/Deficit Models of Psychopathology (e.g., SZ = excess DA) - too simplistic Brainstem: The Hindbrain Medulla Breathing, blood pressure, muscle tone and regulating circulation Pons Connects brainstem with cerebellum & involved l Ct Thalamus in sleep and arousal Hypothalamus Corpus collosum Cerebellum Pons Coordination of voluntary Cerebellum Medulla movement and Spinal cord Forebrain Thalamus Hypothalamus Cer r Corpus collosum Pons Cerebellum Forebrain Medulla Spinal cord Forebrain • “Limbic System”: motivated behavior – Hippocampus • Acquisition of explicit memory (H.M.; Memento) – Amygdala • Emotion – Cingulate gyrus • Coordinates cognition and behavior • Basal ganglia: – Caudate, puatmen, nucleus accumbens • Control motor activity • Reward learning 10 11 The Cerebrum: Higher cognitive functions • Cerebral Cortex – Outer .1” – Contains 80% of CNS neurons • Cerebral Hemispheres • Corpus Callosum 30 billion nerve cells + 270 billion Glial cells Each nerve cell makes 10,000 contacts each 12Approximately 300 trillion connections In terms of understanding abnormal behavior, which lobe do you think might be the most “interesting”? CNS and Psychopathology Amygdala (fear) Hippocampus (trauma/PTSD) Basal ganglia (OCD) Hypothalamus (appetitive and aggressive behavior) Frontal Cortex (depression; schizophrenia) Sympathetic Nervous System (panic) Mind/Brain Relationships: Martin et al., 2001, JAMA Psychiatry • Medication systematically changes brain activity – brain antidepressants target serotonin functioning in the – These changes in brain activity lead to downstream changes in thoughts, feelings, behaviors (i.e., “bottom- up”) • brain activity(“talk” therapy, CBT) also changes – But does not necessarily activate the same networks as medication – Changes in thoughts/behaviors change our physiology (i.e., “top-down”) Integrating Neuroscience and Psychotherapy • Study combining fMRI and talk therapy – Siegle et al., (2006). Use of fMRI to predict recovery from unipolar depression with cognitive behavior therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(735-738). – Cited 200+ times • Super duper smart guy. Siegle et al. (2006) • The facts: – 40-60% of depressed individuals respond to CBT – A core principle of CBT is learning how to interrupt negative, sustained emotional processing (e.g., rumination) – A key neural region involved in emotional processing is the amygdala • The question: – By measuring amygdala activity before treatment, can we better predict who will respond to CBT and who won’t? Siegle et al., (2006) • 14 depressed adults, 21 healthy controls • fMRI was used to measure amygdala responses to emotional words (pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral) • Depressed adults received 16 sessions of CBT , and residual symptoms were assessed 19 20 Siegle et al., (2006) • Amygdala activity at baseline predicted who responded to CBT treatment, and was a better predictor than self-reported rumination • While CBT is generally effective for treating depression, integrating biological measures may help us better predict who responds Psychology Neuroscience


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