EUH 4241 Week 3 Notes
EUH 4241 Week 3 Notes EUH 4241
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Johnson on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EUH 4241 at Florida State University taught by Robert Gellately in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see The Holocaust in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Socialism (1/26) Recap: 1) Legacy of Hitler’s First War 2) German Revolutions (I) Legacy of War ● Life changing experience for AH, he never got over it or the loss. ● He was wounded September 1916, received Iron Cross award. ● He was mildly blinded by poison gas attack, evacuated, treated, and informed of the revolution. ● AntiSemitism grew during WWI, Jews accused as “shirkers” who have all the “easy jobs” → untrue (II) German Revolution ● AH changed by war forever ○ Stayed in the military; trained as a speaker to teach demobilizing troops. ○ Nov 9, 1919: Most important day in Hitler’s life ● At first, revolution is nonviolent. ○ Kurt Eisner (a radical socialist), takes power in Bavaria → declares it to be a republic. ● Early 1919: 1st Communist attempt at revolution in Berlin → failed but others follow. ○ “Red Scare” ● February 21: Eisner assassinated. ● Captain Karl Mayr: instrumental in drawing Hitler into politics. ○ AH impressed Mayr as a speaker ● AntiSemitism fueled by Eisner’s Revolution Hitler’s Politics ● No evidence of Hitler’s personal antisemitism before 1919 → Army needs to fight “Jewish Bolshevism” ○ Letter to Gemlich → Hitler believes that “jews a race not a religion,” wants “antisemitism based on reason, not emotion,” and “some kind of Aliens law” ○ 1919 Final Goal: Removal; but does not mention “annihilation” or “final solution” or “mass murder” ● Hitler begins to turn toward the RightWing Parties → tasked to check on them and begins to identify with them. ○ PanGerman League ○ Members include Rudolf Hess, Alfred Rosenberg, Deidrech Eckart ○ DAP : German Worker’s Party ● Threshold moment: his first public speech at DAP’s first public meeting ○ Remembered of that day: “I can speak!” → electrified the audience. ○ “fiery message”; few details of speech, but demanded unity against the common enemy of the peoples and support for a German press to expose what Jewish press was hiding. ● November 13, 1919: speech against the Jews, especially their role in German revolutions and Bavaria. Combined antisemitism with nationalism; claimed Munich Jewish community had food while German workers were starving. ● Joins DAP as #555 (numbers started at #551) ● Dec 10: Openly blamed Jews for defeat → calls them “foreign race” ● Early 1920, AH and Anton Drexler work on new party program NSDAP ● Combine Nationalism + Socialism; antiMarxist ● Feb 24, 1920: about 2000 members ● 25 point program ● DAP becomes NSDAP ● National Socialist German Worker’s Party ● Hitler “found himself” → leaves the Army ○ looking for one, uniting big idea “Big Idea” ● Partly nationalist reaction to Germany’s loss in WWI ● Reflection of socialistic impact of the war ● Reaction to German Revolutions & Russian Revolution ● AH does not need to convert anyone → most early Nazi leaders already had Nazi views before there was a Party ○ similar views already in the air Joseph Goebbels (b. 1897) ● Diary holds almost daily clues to his political awakening → progreater Germany, antiinternational, deeply antisemitic (even though his girlfriend was Jewish), “socialistic” Alfred Rosenberg (b. 1893) ● From Reval, part of the Russian Empire → hated what he saw in Moscow ● 1918: Gave his first speech on “Marxism and Jewry” ● became one of the foremost leaders of Nazi Party Russian Emigres bring ● atrocity stories and faked exposes of how the Jews conspired to rule the world (Protocols of the Elders of Zio) Heinrich Himmler (b. 1900) ● became a nationalist during the war → war was over before he ever saw action. ● Spring 1919: joins Franz Ritter von Epp to put down Soviet experiment in Munich ● Became head of SS and all the concentration camps. Other Notable NSDAP Members: ● Gregor Strasser and Otto Strasser → brothers; more socialistically inclined than Hitler ● Ernst Rohm → starts the storm troopers ● Hans Frank → becomes Hitler’s lawyer and eventual Minister of Justice ● Rudolf Hess → Hitler’s deputy Ideological Commonalities ● Resurrecting Germany at all costs ● AntiSemitism ● Reclaim lands given away in the Versailles Treaty of 1919 ● Conquer living space in Eastern Europe ● Sought a “great man”; like Bismarck or Friedrich the Great ○ Goebbels: June/July 1924: “the country years for the One, the Man, as the earth longs for rain in summer” Goebbels ● Describes Hitler after reading one of his speeches: “an enthusiastic idealist” with “complete devotion to the one great thing, the Fatherland, Germany” ● Heard Hitler’s July 1925 Speech: makes him “cry like a baby,” AH has such passion, just as Goebbels “wished him to be” → writes “halfplebian, halfgod! Is this really Christ of just John the Baptist?” Hitler’s appeal ● Psychological readiness for someone like Hitler already existed ● Hitler had Charismatic Appeal Charisma: a gift of grace; a leader has it when followers recognize that the leader is “sent from above” (Max Weber) Charismatic Appeal: a very affective and emotional bond between a leader and his followers; leader retains hold on followers by proving his powers in practice. The Key ● A leader must articulate a mission and specify: ○ “what is wrong with our world?” ○ “what is to be done about it?” ● Prove it or lose it Hitler’s Mission ● Build a community of the people (Volksgemeinschaft) ● Community shall be ○ Racially Pure ○ Germans only (only persons of German blood) ○ Conflict free, “above” social classes, socialistic ● Hitler used theatrical and operatic tricks, rehearsed → studied stage design AH & AntiSemitism ● Radicalized fast: August 1920 → “root out the bacterium in order to restore the body’s natural defenses” said “Germanification of the Jews impossible” Nazi Rise to Power (1/28) 1) Emergence of Nazi Party 2) Hitler’s Coup and Mein Kampf 3) Rise of Nazism 4) . (I) Emergence of Nazi Party Hitler’s AntiSemitism → see above “Hitler’s Politics” Capstones ● Pure German blood ● Antisemitism ○ No Jew can be German ● AntiImmigration ○ Any future immigration of nonGermans is to be prevented ○ Anyone who is noncitizen is a guest and must be subject to legislation for Aliens ● Censorship ○ Newspapers which violate the public opinion shall be banned ● Strong state Germany’s Economic Collapse 1923 ● Versailles treaty (article 231) & reparations ● No German Chancellor would pay ● Jan 1923: France and Belgium invade Germany German Inflation (II) Hitler’s Coup and Mein Kampf Hitler Became: ● Strong enough to “copy” ● Benito Mussolini (Rome, October 2229, 1922) → small band “marched on Rome” and took power. ● Nov. 8: AH’s speech in Beer Hall; “First take Munich, then on to Berlin” ● Nov. 9: Nazi’s march to Munich, and German police shoot back Failed Putsch (Coup d'etat) ● about 20 killed ● Nazi Party banned → used trial as political stage ● Hitler is given 5 years for high treason, out in less than one for good behavior. ○ treated like a king in jail ○ Nazi’s convert all the persons in the jail as well as the man in charge of the jail into their party Refounding the Party, 1925 ● Hitler looks for a legal route to power while in jail ○ Writes Mein Kampf ■ 192425, published 2 volumes, 1925 and 1926 ■ Not sure who really wrote it, if Hitler or someone else. ● AH released December 20, 1924 after only 9 months → big mistake on Germany’s part… ○ No one read Mein Kampf ○ Copyright just expired at end of 2015 → too powerful to release? “Mein Kampf” ● Exaggerated autobiography; about why he’s the “chosen one” ● Outlines AH’s mission to save Germany ○ Create an authoritarian dictatorship ■ Backed by the people (III) The Rise of Nazism → see “Charisma” + “The Key” above 1926: InnerParty Conflict ● More socialist inclined (J. Goebbels + Strasser brothers) vs. Hitler ● Resolved (but not by Hitler’s personal magnetism) ○ Why/How?: Goebbels Diary ■ Hitler’s Economic ideal: mixed collectivism and individualism ■ Soil: above and below belongs to the people ■ Production: creative, individualistic; factories, trusts, manufacturing, communications, etc, to be socialized. The Great Depression ● No Great Depression? Probably no Hitler. ● Economic crash 6 years after Inflation ● Nazi Party rises fast Hitler’s Socialism ● “The age of individualism is over” “societies of the future will be societies of the people” ● People understand/cope with only so much ○ Dare not reveal everything at once AntiSemitism in late Weimar ● Very important to Hitler, and important to the Nazi Party/SA/SS ● Local voter opinion variations → pushed every way possible What do Voters Buy? ● What are they responding to? → will they support NSDAP in spite of antisemitism? Or because of it? ● 1930 election, as example → posters/propaganda President Paul von Hindenburg (1847 1934) ● “Hero” of WWI ● Elected 2nd President of Weimar Republic in 1925 ● Up for reelection in 1932 Presidential Election of 1932 ● Paul von Hindenburg (49.6%) ● Adolf Hitler (30%) ● Ernst Thalmann (13.2%) → leader of communist party ● Round 2: ○ Hindenburg (53%) ○ Hitler (36.8%) The “CatchAll” Party ● The following vote for Nazi party, as they have no party of their own/with their specific interests ○ Religion/region = Protestant/Rural ○ Class = fewer workers ○ More middle class, lower middle class ○ Traditional Antisemitic areas Party Financing ● Cliche: capitalists “bought” Hitler ● selffinancing ○ Also key to election activity/success → cashonthebarrelhead approach ○ “You’ll appreciate it more if YOU pay for it” ○ local autonomy, with speakers and guidelines from Munich ■ all speakers must be Nazi trained speakers, locals can choose who speaks and what they speak on → but locals must pay for it
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