Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes chem 10061-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Brown on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to chem 10061-001 at Kent State University taught by David bowers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see general chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
General Chemistry 2 Week 2 Geometrical Isomers: cis-trans versions of a molecule Have different physical properties Alkynes: hydrocarbons that contain at least one C-C triple bond. They are known as unsaturated carbons CnH2n-2 Rotation is restricted at the triple bond Linear Shape Sp hybridization e- rich and behaves as a functional group Practice Drawing structures 3,5—Dimethyl—2—octene 2,3,3—trimethyloctane 3—ethyl—3,4 dimethyldecane Trans—2,2—dimethyl—3—hexene When deciding if something is cis or trans you are looking directly before and after the double bond! Aromatic Hydrocarbons: cyclic molecules with delocalized pi electrons They must have alternating double and single bonds to be an aromatic hydrocarbon Skip naming these molecules Resonance forms have alternating single and double bond o Shows delocalized electrons as unbroken or dashed Functional Group There are a lot of functional groups in organic chemistry Functional Groups determine o Physical properties o Chemical properties o Reactivity Functional groups will determine the polarity of a compound o Polarity determines what intermolecular forces are present Intermolecular forces and polarity depend on each other Regions of high and low density will be determines by functional groups Common Abbreviations Used In Organic Chemistry I. R—an organic group of atoms bound by carbon a. Exception—when carbon is bound to oxygen II. R/H—used for substituents a. Can be either R or H III. X—halide a. F,Cl,Br,I **Know the prefixes and suffixes in table 15.5 functional groups. (halogen is the only one with a prefix)* Alcohol Consists of carbon bond to –OH Named by replacing –e at end of hydrocarbon name with –o They have high melting point o This is due to the fact that they form H bond Less acidic and basic compared to H O2 Haloalkanes Contain a carbon bound to a halogen Amines Contains a nitrogen atom It is viewed as a derivative of N3 Weak bases o Due to lone pair on the nitrogen Three types o Primary=NRH 2 o Secondary=NR H 2 o Tertiary= NR 3 o Primary and secondary can form hydrogen bonds but tertiary can not. Carboxyl (not functional group) They are parts of functional groups o Aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, ester and amides Have a C-O double bond o Partial positive charge is located on the carbon and there is a partial negative charge on the oxygen There will always be a dipole on a carboxyl Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes have a hydrogen at the terminal end Ketones have two terminal carbons These are very easy to confuse. Be careful! Carboxylic Acid Had the functional group –COOH in it Weak acid Amides Has a nitrogen in it In most drugs, pain meds and LSD Also a peptide bond in biology Skip polymers
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