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EUH 4241 Week 4 Notes

by: Emily Johnson

EUH 4241 Week 4 Notes EUH 4241

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In-class notes for 2/2 and 2/4
The Holocaust
Robert Gellately
Class Notes
EUH 4241, Florida State, European History, The Holocaust
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Johnson on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EUH 4241 at Florida State University taught by Robert Gellately in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see The Holocaust in History at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Rise of Hitler and the Nazis (2/2)  The Great Depression  Collapse of Democracy  ● Laws passed by “congress” decline as Presidential Decrees increase  ○ Becomes presidential regime  Unemployment and Voting  ● Rise of unemployment and welfare  ○ Unemployment at nearly 40% at the end of 1932  ● SPD/Trade Union turn “left”  ● Cause anxiety, more people begin to turn to Nazis  ● May 1928 Election:   ○ Communists: 10% of vote  ○ National Socialist 2%  ● September 1930:  ○ National Socialist: 18%  ○ Communists: 13%  ● July 31, 1932:   ○ National Socialist: 37%  ○ Communists: 14%  Biggest Appeal  ● Volksgemeinschaft:​  Community of the People  ○ Linked to 1813 and Prussia v. France; WWI  ○ Inclusionary (all classes) National revival  ○ Exclusion of other races (i.e. Jews)  Why no Nazi Majority?   ● Proportional representation  ○ Multi­party system  ○ no party ever has majority  ● Fixed voting blocs  ● Not mean limits of NS appeal  Paramilitary Forces  ● “military­like” uniformed forces  ● Street Battles NSDAP v. KPD  ● Each side has hundreds of thousands  ● Others groups also partake  Nazi Storm Troopers (SA)  ● 1930: 60,000 to 80,000  ● 1932: 220,000  ● 30 January 1933: over 400,000  ● Some made Deputy Policemen when Hitler is appointed January 30 1933  NSDAP  ● End of 1930: 389,000  ● End of 1933: 3,900,000  Nazi “Seizure of Power”  ● They don’t actually “seize” power ­­ it’s given to them.   ● January 30, 1933: Hitler appointed Chancellor  ● Coalition government  ● Elites choose the “Right”  ○ Former Chancellor Franz von Papen: “We’ll squeeze Hitler until he  squeaks”   Cabinet/Government of 10  ● Chancellor: Adolf Hitler  ● Minister of the Interior: Frick  ● Minister without Portfolio, Prussian Interior Minister (Goering)   ● Others, non­Nazi bigwigs  ● New elections: March 5  Franz von Papen  ● At first Cabinet meeting  ● Papen suggests:  ○ banning KPD (Hitler says no)  ○ make clear next election last  ○ parliamentary system ruled out “forever”   Hitler’s “Legal Revolution”   ● Appointed like Mussolini  ● Minority of Nazis in his Cabinet  ● Keeps up legal facade  ○ Makes resistance difficult   ○ If someone wants to resist, they must do something illegal  Reichstag Fire February 27, 1933  ● Next day:  ○ “Presidential decree of a defensive measure against Communist acts of  violence  ○ Hitler says: this is a Communist act of arson; attempt at violent revolution  ■ It was not set by a communist; set by a lone Dutch radical  ● Elections coming on March 5  ● Article 48: President can declare a state of emergency  Presidential Emergency Decree Article 48  ● President suspends the constitution  ○ important articles  ■ Freedom of Expression  ■ Freedom of Press  ■ Freedom of Organization & Assembly  ■ Freedom of Privacy  ■ Freedom to Refuse Home Search  ○ Basis of secret police and concentration camps  “Legal Revolution”  ● Legal facade  ● Weimar constitution not broken  ● What difference did it make?   ○ kept the people from revolting  Article 48: Illegal?  ● Used in   ○ 1920 (Kapp)  ○ 1923 (unrest of France­Belgium Invasion)  ○ July 1932 (protest against Prussian Takeover  March 5 Election  ● National Socialist: 43.9% of vote  ○ still not majority  ○ allied with Nationalist Party (8%) ­­ brings majority  ○ NSDAP strongest party in all districts   ■ except 2; dominated by Catholic party  Terror  ● Mainly against “social outsiders” & those the Nazis wanted to turn into social  outsiders  ● Goes from “left” from “right”  ○ disallowed/dissolve all other parties  ○ start with left to destroy competition, end with Catholics choosing to  dissolve their own party.  ● March 1933: first concentration camps  ○ “for communists”   ○ first waves of camps: Jews not primary targets  ● First Camp: Dachau KZ, March 20 1933  ○ “for protective custody of prisoners”  Building Consensus  ● Terror, but selective terror  ○ Aimed mainly at communists  ○ socialists, some others  ○ few jews  Gleichschaltung “Co­ordination”  ● “Legal” end to all non­NS parties  ● Nazification or Dissolved  ● Begin with the Left  ○ Eliminate one at a time  “Self Co­ordination”  ● Desire to participate, be on the winning side  ○ Millions change sides, “swept away”  ● Fed up with Weimar democracy, want something better  Enabling Law (Empowering)  ● “Law to Remedy the Distress of the people and the Reich”  ● Hitler can pass laws himself  ● Constitutional  ● Used in emergency October 1923  ● November 18, 1932: Hitler told Hindenburg he wants the same law  Enabling Law March 23, 2933  ● Gov (i.e. Hitler) may enact law  ○ Laws may deviate from constitutional  ● To be in effect until April 1, 1937  ○ then it’s renewed  ● President’s powers “untouched”  ● no longer necessary for President to sign off on laws   ● Turns Hitler legallyinto a law­giving dictator  Enabling Act: End of Phase I  ● 1 Week Later:  ○ First call to boycott Jewish business and professions  Factors that “Produce” Social Consensus  1) Curing unemployment, ​ restorin economy  2) Beating Treaty of Versaillesrestoring Germany’s “rightful” place  3) Create “Ruhe und Ordnung​ ,”restorin law and order  ● “good citizens” have nothing to worry about, but criminals and tramps do  Building the Autobahn (Highways)  ● Pre­Hitler; but he pushed it and other make­work projects  ● Depression had psychological causes on citizens  ● Autobahn: a small part of the psychological cure  ● Volkswagen​ : the people’s car; designed by Hitler for a family of four.   ○ Families saved up money to buy car, even if they didn’t need it or buy it  Constructing the Third Reich (2/4)  Hitler  ● Demand  ○ wants to call another election  ● Kind of government  ○ popular dictatorship (dictatorship that is backed by the people)  ● Priority #1  ○ end unemployment  Consensus Dictatorship  consensus:  ​a generally accepted opinion  ● Hitler wanted a consensus dictatorship so that the majority of citizens would  accept their ruler and revolution would be next to impossible  Hitler’s “Legal Revolution”   ● Appointed like Mussolini in Italy  ● Minority of Nazis in his cabinet  ● Follow letter, but not the spirit of the constitution  Political Enemies  ● Arrest the leading Communist Officials and Socialist Officials  ● “Other” political enemies as well  ● Jews (few) mainly if one of these.   Attractions of Nazism  Who is Attracted to NS Party & its Affiliates  ● Medical doctors, lawyers, teachers, etc  ● Students  ● Youth  ○ 2.3 million by the end of 1933  ○ 5 million by the end of 1936  ○ Compulsory from Dec 1936  ■ most want to join  ● Women  ○ traditionalist to the time (not considered misogyny)   ○ One of the largest groups is the National Socialist Women’s Group (NSF)  Mobilizing the People  Religions  ● Catholic Center Party dissolved July 6, 1933  ○ Concordat July 8, 1033 (gives Catholics freedom to join Nazis)  Plebiscites  ● Plebeian: ordinary people  ● Constitutional changes to put a vote specifically for plebeians  ○ plebiscites   AH Tells Insiders July 1933  ● he wants to show the world his popular support  ● October 14, 1933: Left League of Nations  ● Nov 12: election 92.2%   Head of State and Government  ● Hindenburg dies August 2, 1934  ● August 19 Plebiscite  ○ “Do you agree that we should combine the offices of President and  Chancellor?”  ■ Yes: 89%  ■ No: 10%  Saarland wants return to Germany  ● January 13, 1935: Plebiscite; supervised by League of Nations  ● 90.7% in favor: as close to a free vote as possible, no Nazi terror or secret police  involved.   ● Underground Socialist (Anti­Nazi) is astounded by level of support for Hitler; “You  can make people sing, but not with such enthusiasm”   Rhineland 1936  ● March 7: Military reoccupation of the Rhineland  ● March 26: Hitler’s reelection (98.8%)  ○ Kind of plebiscite  ● March 12, 1938: Germany’s “Reunification” or Incorporation with Austria  Austria  ● April 10 Election to Grossdeutschen Reichstag  ● German and Austrian Plebiscite to decide whether to reunify  Plebiscite April 10, 1938  ● 99% of Germans and Austrians agree  ○ Real support beyond doubt  ○ Opposition said it was faked or terror  ■ Not completely   Back in Germany (1933­34): Concentration Camps  Hitler: October 1933  ● “Greatest Revolution of all time”  ● “Not a single pane of glass was broken”   ● Propaganda  Why Concentration Camps?  ● 1st Mission: Political  ○ Communists  ○ Some leaders of other parties  ○ many beaten  KZ and Consensus  ● Who was persecuted ​ firs​  ○ Political enemies  ○ Social misfits  ● End 1933: “End of the Camps in Sight”   KZ Shut Down Late 1933  ● “No more political enemies”  ● End of 1934: total number in camps: 3,000  ● Not many Jewish prisoners  Hitler as Prince  ● Catholic Bishop Berning visits Emsland 1936  ● Interview  ○ “Adolf Hitler is like a prince who awakens “sleeping beauty””  ○ Camps are not meant to frighten people  Opposition in the Ranks: AH not radical enough  SA: Brownshirts ​turmabteilung)  ● 1931 = 77,000  ● Mid 1932 = 500,000  ● Mid 1932 = nearly 3 million  ● ambition: become the military  SS: Protective Corp (secret policSchutzstaffel der NSDAP)  ● 1924 = 240  ● 1945 = over 840,000  Roehm­Putsch a​ka Night of the long knives   


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