EVS195SS1.pdf EVS 195 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kinnamon Hunt on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EVS 195 - 001 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Jack Charles Hall in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Environmental Studies in Environmental Science at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
EVS195-Unit 1 Notes Dr. Jack Hall What is the environment? The environment-all external conditions and factors both living and non-living that affect an organism during its lifetime. All organisms need water, habitat, air, food, etc. Environmental Studies The study of how we and other species interact with each other and with the non-living environment. Environmental studies have both physical and social aspects that integrates knowledge. Physics, geology, economics, sociology, chemistry, geography, politics/law, education, biology, conservation, management Environmental Scientists Scientists from biological, physical, chemical, and social sciences who study how the earth works, how we interact with the earth, and how to solve environmental problems Environmentalists- not necessarily scientists! Could be lawyers, economist, politicians, engineers, educators, artists, or anyone interested and concerned with the environment. Who cares? Why study? Only place to live We all have to pay for it-wallet, health, etc. What are our main environmental problems? Overpopulation-biggest one we have today Resources Energy Water/air-polluted Biodiversity loss Climate change-rainfall pattern, drought, sea level rise Apathy Environmental Unity The earth environment is an interaction of natural systems Natural system: Lithosphere-solid earth-soils rocks minerals Hydrosphere-water-saltwater and freshwater Cryosphere- ice- Greenland and Antarctica Atmosphere- air Biosphere- critters/plants and animals A change in one system will cause changes in others ex: global warming Unity is easy to understand, it is difficult to determine the details: time, rate, location, magnitude Environmental history and cultural change 4 main stages of Cultural Change: hunter-gatherer agricultural revolution industrial information and globalization revolution Early Societies >12,000 years ago hunter-gatherer groups small groups--<50 people moved regularly by season-nomads little short term effect on environment --advanced hunter-gatherers caused some local extinctions carried seeds-altered plant and animal distribution (carrying stuff and would drop seeds for example) still nomads-season moves still small groups-<100 people little short term effect on environment worked with the environment to keep themselves going Agricultural Revolution Agriculture arose about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago Climate changing—started warming up 12,000 years ago, before this we were in an ice age, glaciers melted so now there is longer time to grow and gather stuff and became easier Switch from hunter gatherer to agricultural settlements Nomadic people decided to stay in one place instead of picking up and moving Domestication of plants and animals—save some and grow the crops again next year; domesticated dogs to work for them Slash and burn cultivation to clear land- not a lot of machinery so to clear an area you cut it down and burn it the ash becomes fertilizer Going to have a bigger effect on the environment Agricultural societies Shifting cultivation as soil quality is declined More land cleared for farming and fuel Low population density and slow population growth Birth rate and death rate—high Life expectancy- 30-40 years Using more land, wood, water, etc. to form more permanent settlements Lasted for a while Lasted until industrial revolution Most people grew and produced food Industrial Revolution 1700s Change from renewable resources to non-renewable resources for energy Before got energy from wood (a renewable resource) and flowing water (also renewable) Then found coal and later included to oil and gas More bang for your buck Coal allowed us to use machinery like the steam engineàtractor now only need one guy to take care of the fields; everyone else can do something else; work in factories, medicine, etc. First machinery was associated with agriculture Change from rural communities to industrial cities More jobs started popping up in the cities Mining coal, plowing fields, building cities Fewer people needed to grow food Industries and other business grows More reliable food supply Lifespan beings to increase (slowly) Birth rate=high Death rate= declining Population increases rapidly Large, long, lasting effect on environment Information and Globalization Revolution Began about 1945; about the end of WW2 Computers were coming into play; buying TV; phones were invented; more technology was coming into modern day life Rapid acquisition of technology and information Scientific information doubles every 5 years General information doubles every 2 years Technology helps us understand the environment better: monitor, model, collect and analyze data Technology also uses more resources and produces more by-products Point being we use lots of stuff Societies and energy use 2000 calories/day-minimum for human survival hunter-gatherer societies: 2000-12000 calories/day/person agricultural societies: 12,000-60,000 calories/day/person industrial societies: 60,000-120,000 calories/day/person global societies: à120,000 calories/day/person; world average 125,000 calories/day/person; US 260,000 calories/day/person
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