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January Notes

by: Andrew Bashor

January Notes POL/ECN/HIS 370

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Andrew Bashor


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About this Document

Since the semester started on Tuesday, this constitutes as 5 days worth of notes.
Economy of Eastern Europe
Dr. Pellillo
Class Notes
Economics, Eastern Europe, history, political science
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Bashor on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL/ECN/HIS 370 at a university taught by Dr. Pellillo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.

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Date Created: 02/01/16
Econ 370- Intro to Course 01/19/2016 ▯ Introductions- Basic stuf ▯ What is Eastern Europe?  Can be defined by a small group of countries  Geographic region and former Soviet Union  Can extend into the Caspian Sea region ▯ Economic Transformation  The breakup on USSR in 1990  A large number of diferent trends after 1990 o Georgia’s GDP fell 73% in four years o Poland jumped after breakup (236% of 1990 value) o Ukraine and Georgia still not back to former Soviet glory  Some economic numbers are not legitimate due to poor reporting  Rise and fall of Communism most important economic event of 20 th century ▯ Defining Eastern Europe  “Time to Scrap ‘Eastern Europe’” video o connotations of poverty and poor economy o Geographically and politically doesn’t make sense.  Some countries are members of NATO, others are part of the EU and shouldn’t be put into idea of Eastern Europe o Various regions that can be more well defined by money, policy, and geography  Eastern Europe generally known as Baltic States and former Soviet States  Former Soviet Union o 15 currently independent nations including Ukraine, Georgia, and Uzbekistan  Former Yugoslavia o 7 nations including Kosovo, Macedonia, and Serbia  Regions defined as Eastern Europe includes some nations that do not exist anymore ▯ In Essence, look at various countries individually as part of broader idea ▯ Syllabus handed out. Available on Canvas  Maps, countries, capitals, and dates available on canvas ▯ Course layout and descriptions of assignments  Each individual to become specialist on one country (collective learning)  Monthly briefs on economic and political developments (4-6 sentences) o Sources to be in-text links (imbedded links) to news sources o Shared on canvas with rest of class o Andrew Bashor- Belarus o Google Alerts for news and information o RSS aggregator called feedly (  Book chapter reviews…great ▯ ▯ Announcements  One amendment to the syllabus – country briefs submitted no later than five days after the end of the month  Date for geography quiz is announced Thursday ▯ ▯ Pre Bolshevik  Most people working in agriculture before Bolshevik revolution  Some traces of industrialization  The symbol of sycle and hammer represents the workers of both industry and agriculture ▯ ▯ Bolsheviks  Vladimir Lenin o Applied writings by Fredrich Engles and Karl Marx  Economists during the mid 1800s  Focused on large industrial nations: Germany, Britain  Worried about the working classes becoming less and less wealthy because of the bourgiouse becoming exploitative  Collaborated to write Communist Manifesto in 1848, Das Capital came later  Guessed that the proletariat would overthrow capitalist class, a revolution o Very intelligent and learned o Staying in Switzerland before revolution after being kicked out of Russia o Head of Bolshevik party, instituted workers class rules o Looking to “catch up” with rest of the world in first economic treatise  The Reds o Supporters of the Bolshevik party (Reds vs. Whites) o Fighting civil war throughout the Russian Empire from 1917- 1921 ▯ ▯ USSR  Comprised of 15 now independent nations  Lenin pushed for expansion of agriculture to scale up production  Wanted to nationalize banking and major parts of economy  Wanted to produce consumer cooperatives/ syndicate for allocation of resources  First attempt to implement Marx and Engles ideas immediately o Marx and Engles thought it would happen over time ▯ ▯ Implementation  Peasants were given use rights  Soviets were looking over allocation of land and use of production o Done at local level, not done nationally o A lot of violence during time period because of wealth gap  Banned hiring of labor in agriculture  Supreme Council of National Economy o Complete nationalization of agriculture and national economy o Established cooperatives and made associations with local economies o Wrote declaration of exploited peoples o Banned free trade in most products, moved toward command economy  State sponsored terrorism to take surpluses from the rich  Winter of 1920 was brutal o grain was aggressively taken from peasants o Hyperinflation o Peasant agitation o Made implementation difficult and incredibly aggressive ▯ ▯ War Communism  Prodrazverstka – seizure of peasant agricultural surpluses o Eventually replaced with regular tax. Tax worked better  Banning of private trade o Not efective o Black / “gray” market economic activity  Ban on private manufacturing o Nationalization of industry o Allocation of output by the state during the civil war  Complete ban on use of money o “Free” rations for workers  terror, expropriations, and requisitions in an attempt to implement the previously mentioned four characteristics Post War Communism – post 1921  got rid of Prodrazverstka slowly and replaced it with tax  calmed down on state sponsored terrorism  private trade allowed o 1922-1923 75% of retail trade in private sector o back and forth regulations on how much one could sell o Stalin saw private farmers as a threat  maintained high centralization o state enforced low grain prices o peasants began to move into cities, state was fine with this o wanted to force peasants into cities to increase industrialization  money was eventually reintroduced with economy  some industrial producers did become privatized o see an increase in production and agriculture  banks still nationalized ▯ ▯ Agriculture sector post 1921  State established cooperatives in order to keep the farmers from gaining wealth  Moved toward more mechanization on larger farms  Wanted collective farms (1927) and state farms (1928)  Wanted to stamp out private actors (kulak) in agriculture (1929)  1931- a more aggressive push toward agricultural industrialization  Reasons for collectivize o To promote industrial development  Poor farmers leave for cities, get city jobs  Land gets freed up and is owned then by state o Industrial and Agricultural prices  Industry prices up, agricultural prices down  Peasants squeezed, move away from peasant farms o Political atmosphere  Prejudices against capitalist ideas  Stalin’s “Great leap forward” way of thinking  Those who did not join collective were enemies of the state  State deported kulaks and seized assets for that of the state o By 1936, 89.6% of peasant households collectivized o By 1935, 94.1% of crop area was collectivized ▯ ▯ Transparency international released corruption index yesterday,  best is Finland, worst is Turkmenistan  former Soviet nations all find themselves low on chart ▯ ▯ Agricultural collectivization and industrialization  Aggressive drive later on o Stalin, First General Secretary, very aggressive  Georgian  Involved in riots in early 1900s in Georgia  Ended up in Siberian prison before the Bolsheviks  Met up with Lenin just before the revolution after release from prison o Pushed for aggressive and rapid industrialization and collectivization toward late 1920s o Kulaks pushed out of property and land seized/cooperated  People began to steal from farms out of necessity o Punishment included 10 years of prison + loss of all property  After large collectivization, output plummeted o Famine starting in 1932  40% of Kazack population died, worse in Ukraine  about 7 mil deaths in Kazachstan and Ukraine ‘31-‘33  a preventable happening caused by political ideology o Production all over economy collapsed  By 1930s, began planning for entire economy, not just agriculture ▯ ▯ Central planning, economic structures  Basic economic decisions and questions o 1. What products will be produced? o 2. How do we produce? What is best way to produce? o 3. How do we distribute goods and services? o 4. With whom do we trade? (locally and internationally) o 5. Monetary and fiscal policy  value of goods and services  how do we invest?  Actions taken (basic rundown) in USSR o Emphasis put on industrial output and production o Looked to establish a planned economy o Distribution was done by rationing and centralized price setting by state  Looked to make economy where everyone had access to same goods and services and same income o Investing decisions taken by political parties (the communist party) ▯ ▯ Types of Economic structures and comparison  Capitalism o Decision making - Primarily decentralized, o Mechanisms for information provision and coordination - Market based economy, supply and demand o Property rights - primarily private ownership o Incentive system – market (material), right to own property o Organization of public choices and preferences – typically seen in democracies  Planned Socialism o Decision making – primarily centralized  State officials make decisions, others carry it out o Mechanisms for information provision and coordination – primarily plan  Owners in a certain industry receive targets from officials according to plan  Owners get plan based on state decisions, no private control o Property rights – primarily state ownership  Private property rights stripped  Means of production dictated by the state  Own labor kept private o Incentive system – material and moral  Bonuses for meeting goals in plan  Sometimes paraded as examples if did very well and “played system right” o Org. for public choices – dictatorship  All production decisions made at top  Centralized from the state, highly authoritarian  Market Socialism (mix of two previous) o Decision-making – primarily decentralized o MIPC – primarily market o Property rights – state and/or collective cooperation o Incentive – material and moral o OPC – state-dependent  Slightly more democratic, but largely authoritarian  Degree to which it was authoritarian varied by the nation and economy ▯ ▯ In practice in USSR  The government would set up the plan, try to send it down to the enterprises o 1000s and 1000s of people involved  Not very straightforward in practice  The enterprises would almost always bargain for a diferent price  Large amount of grey-market economic transactions o Government forced to reform plan time and time again ▯


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