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Wee 2 Notes

by: Jessica Brown

Wee 2 Notes BSCI - 30156 - 002

Jessica Brown

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About this Document

Week 2 of material that will be covered on exam 1
Chi-hua Groff (P)
Class Notes
Genetics, Biology
25 ?





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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Brown on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI - 30156 - 002 at Kent State University taught by Chi-hua Groff (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see ELEMENTS OF GENETICS in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Genetics Week 2 Nemonic for remembering the phases of Mitosis and Meiosis Put My Answer There (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase) Meiosis  Genetic purpose is to produce four haploid cells (n) that are unique and different from the parent cells as well as the other haploid cells  These happen through the germline  Meiosis starts at the zygote. o Fusing of parent cells (2n)  End result of meiosis is germ cells (sperm and eggs)  This is how genetic diversity exists o Due to crossing over (only occurs in meiosis NOT mitosis) Prophase 1  Pairing of sister chromatids. Homologous chromatids. o They are referred to as tetrads ( 4 DNA sequences lined up. 2 are from the mother and 2 are from the father)  Points of contact occur on the chromatids o This physical interaction is the beginning of crossing over Metaphase 1  Tetrads will line up at the plate. Not connected at the centromere like they are in mitosis Anaphase 1  The cell separates into 2 separate cells  Crossing over has occurred Telophase 1  Separating is completed o Two cells distinctly different from parent cells and each other (thanks to crossing over) Prophase 2  Poles organize but there is no interaction with the chromatids Metaphase 2  Line up and separate—no crossing over. Anaphase 2  Cell pulls apart Telophase 2  4 cells result—each cell different and unique The second half of meiosis is called reduction division Y chromosome has an SRY locus  The SRY locus is what turns on the male pathway  Extra Y chromosome caused by sperm having an extra Y. Causes the sex chromosome to be XYY o Monosomy— Having one chromosome—you can live with this ONLY if it’s on the sex chromosomes o Polysomy—multiple or more chromosomes. This is not lethal but causes many syndromes. Nondisjunction  Chromosomes fail to separate o Results in gametes and zygotes with an abnormal chromosome number  Aneuploidy: Variation in chromosome number. Involves there being 1+ chromosomes. o This is a result of errors in meiosis  Which is a result of nondisjunction o Aneuploidy in anaphase 1 of meiosis—daughter cell gains too much info, one has not enough  Since meiosis produces 4 cells then two of these cells would have too much information and two of them would have not enough. Autosomal Inheritance  Human autosomal traits are located on non sex chromosomes  They can be inherited in two ways o Autosomal recessive (rr)  Only homozygous recessive individuals exhibit affected phenotype  Males and females are equally affected and both have an equal chance of passing on the trait if they are carriers  May skip generations  Because of people who carry o Autosomal dominant (Rr or RR)  Homozygous dominant (RR) and heterozygous dominant (Rr) will exhibit the trait. They have an affected phenotype.  Males and females are equally affected  Does NOT skip generations  Mendelian inheritance only applies to autosomal chromosomes. Gregor Mendel  Worked with pea plants  Used monohybrid cross  Discovered that how a single trait on a single loci is passed from parent to offspring Parental Generation (P1) ((TT) Tall plant) X ((tt) Short Plant) F1 Generation. All Tall (Tt) Self cross with f1 to get f2 F2 Generation. ¼ short and ¾ tall This showed the DNA does not go away—it returns through the carrier (Tt) Punnet Square: Visual representation of particular genes in gametes and how they combine in offspring


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