HY 315 Week 3 Notes
HY 315 Week 3 Notes HY 315
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 315 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Kohl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see The Civil War in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
History 315 Week 3 Notes 2/1/16 1:36 PM January 26 Lincoln-Douglas Debates (continued) • Debates were the greatest of the 19 thcentury • Most penetrating about slavery in antebellum times • Most people didn’t campaign for senator o At this time, people didn’t directly elect senators, they elected state legislators, and state legislators elected senators • Lincoln’s problem: persuade his own party to vote for him • Douglas’s stance: popular sovereignty o He just wanted democracy to work o Never said slavery was wrong ▯ He couldn’t because he was a democratic candidate ▯ He didn’t really think it was important ▯ He believed slavery wouldn’t go into the West regardless ▯ Popular sovereignty was his safest stance • Lincoln’s stance: slavery is socially, morally, and politically wrong o Trying to get Republican votes, so it doesn’t matter what the democrats think o There’s a difference between having morals and how to get rid of an issue • How did Lincoln distinguish himself? o He blatantly stated slavery was wrong o He taunted Douglas for not saying it was wrong ▯ “Who are you going to trust more to keep slavery out of the West?” • Douglas ends up getting re-elected o At the time of re-election, he was one of the most powerful senators in the senate o Douglas getting re-elected doesn’t necessarily represent the people of Illinois’s opinions, just their state legislators John Brown in 1859 • Abolitionist – believed in using coercion and violence o Had murdered Southerners before and had gotten away with it • Raid on Harper’s Ferry o Wants to start a slave rebellion to end slavery by capturing Harper’s Ferry armory ▯ This was a Federal arsenal ▯ Wants to put the guns in the hands of slaves ▯ Captures the arsenal with an army of 22 guys (including his own sons) o October 16, 1859 – took over the armory ▯ He then does nothing – he just sat in the engine house ▯ The U.S. army is called in ▯ Led by Robert E. Lee and Jeb Stuart ▯ Only takes a few minutes to re-take the armory o Didn’t make sense – there were no slaves to give guns, he just sat there, and he didn’t even bring food for his tiny army • Brown lives through the re-capture, is eventually hanged for trying to start a revolt o He made himself a martyr to the cause ▯ Even the judge he sentenced him and his jailor respected him o Becomes a hero in the North – some people compare him to Jesus • Southerner’s viewpoint: “This guy wants to kill Southerners, but the Northerners compare him to Jesus? How can we live with these people?” The Election of 1860 • Democratic Convention I: Charleston (April) o Stephen Douglas believes he should be nominated o The southern wing of democrats hasn’t forgotten about the Lecompton Constitution ordeal o The slate comes out and Douglas is on the ticket ▯ When some didn’t get their way, some southern delegates walk away from the convention ▯ Douglas thought this would help him easily get them nomination ▯ Needs 2/3 of the originally present delegate’s votes – has to meet again • Democratic Convention II: Baltimore (June) o Between April and June, Douglas and his supporters want new slates of people (who support him) to get elected in the states where the delegates who walked out are from o When it comes time for the second convention, the old delegates want back in ▯ Who do you accept? The delegates who were at the original convention or the new ones? ▯ They ended up siding with the new delegates • This precipitates a new walkout of delegates who believed the old delegates should have been let in o they go and have their own separate convention ▯ they put up John C. Breckenridge from Kentucky for President o Northern Democrats elect Douglas to run for President • Republican Party Convention: Chicago (May) o Seward was the front-runner o Lincoln’s supporters outsmart Seward’s ▯ They packed the voting room with Lincoln’s supporter before any of Seward’s can get there ▯ It’s in his home state, and because there are so many people campaigning for Lincoln, the Republican party feels pressured to nominate Lincoln o Lincoln wins • Constitutional Union Convention: Baltimore (May) o A new party emerges, mainly composed of Whigs who were scared the Union will fall apart ▯ They were scared because there was no national candidate – each candidate was sectionalized o This party is in favor of the constitution and the union o They nominate John Bell • Every party had full agendas- but all anyone really cared about was slavery in the West • Lincoln wins a majority of the electoral college (not popular vote) with 180 votes o This is the first time an American president has ever said that he disagreed with slavery – also he didn’t get any electoral votes from any slave states ▯ Second place: John Breckenridge (Southern Democrats) ▯ Third place: John Bell (Union party) ▯ Fourth place: Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrats) ▯ The only candidate to get votes from both free & slave states Three Questions: • Why did the South Secede? o There was now a president that nobody in the South elected & was determined to end slavery o Compromise measures fail o Apostles of Disunion ▯ Letter from Stephen Hale (Greensboro, AL) to Kentucky legislation ▯ “self preservation” ▯ supposed to talk them into joining the confederacy o “Technically the Civil War wasn’t fought over slavery because most people in the South didn’t own slaves.” argument ▯ Well yeah but non-slave holders had just as much interest as slave holders in keeping slavery (in their opinion) o Southerners believed their whole way of life was at stake • Why did compromise fail? o Though Northerners really just wanted to contain slavery and not let it spread West, the South believed that containing it would bring an end to it ultimately o See February 4th • Why did the North fight? o Lincoln did not believe the South could secede – would rather go to war than appease o See March 4 Key Dates • December 20, 1860 o South Carolina Secession Convention takes place o South Carolina is the first state to secede from the Union o A number of states follow • February 1, 1861 o Texas becomes the 7 thstate to secede • February 4, 1861 o Virginia votes to NOT secede at that time o Breaks the secession strength o 15 slave states – 8 have not seceded at this time o CSA meets in Montgomery, AL to create a government ▯ Elects Jefferson Davis as president th ▯ Is inaugurated the 18 ▯ Elects Alexander Stephens as VP ▯ Used to be Lincoln’s best friend ▯ Lincoln is only the president-elect for four months, James Buchannan is still the current president- What is he doing? ▯ Says the South has no right to secede ▯ On the other hand, he believes he has no right to stop the South from seceding • Secession goes forward ▯ Lincoln can’t do anything yet • Power vacuum o Peace Conference meets in DC ▯ Try to work out a compromise ▯ Trouble: by this time, there is no compromise position that will work ▯ Nothing but an ironclad guarantee slavery won’t end will work for the South ▯ The North just elected Lincoln, and believes they should just hold out until Lincoln is inaugurated and won’t stop until slavery is ended ▯ Anything that satisfies the North won’t satisfy the South, and vise versa ▯ Ultimately it fails o At the same time, the Critiden Compromise is also meeting in DC ▯ It fails as well o There’s now only two options: peaceable secession or war • March 4, 1861 – Lincoln’s inauguration o Believes the South has no right to secession ▯ “nobody has ever created a nation as a temporary thing – they are forever” ▯ “perpetual union” – Constitution o Argues there were never states outside of the Union o Only way you can break a contract is by agreement of both sides o What’s Lincoln to do? ▯ Doesn’t want to declare war ▯ He still considers these states in the Union ▯ How? By continuing to govern • How small is the federal government at this point? o At this time the only presence of the federal government were forts, post offices, mints, and custom houses ▯ There were only 16,000 men in the U.S. army – spread out in forts ▯ Only 6,000 men east of the Mississippi River ▯ Each fort only had 50-100 men ▯ To contrast: 2.1 million men served in the Union army, 1 million served in the Confederate army ▯ So the federal government wasn’t big, but by the time Lincoln took office – almost everything was gone ▯ Only 4 forts left – only 2 of the 4 were big ones • Ft. Pickens in Pensacola, Florida • Ft. Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina • April 12, 1861 – Battle at Fort Sumter January 28, 2016 Charleston Harbor • The fact Ft. Moultrie still existed was quite incredible o Not meant to be able to protect itself from the land side ▯ Buchannan put Major Robert Anderson in charge ▯ If Anderson thought he would be attacked, he was allowed to move his garrison to Ft. Sumter th ▯ Anderson waited until December 26 and in the dead of night he rowed out to Ft. Sumter • Pre-emptive: this way Ft. Sumter was saved for the Union (or else it would’ve been long gone) • January 9 - Star of the West was fired upon by the South Carolina army for trying to restock Ft. Sumter o This army fired on a U.S. ship trying to restock a U.S. fort ▯ Essentially the first shots of the war ▯ Anderson says not to send any more ships – he doesn’t want to be the cause of the war • Lincoln talks to Winfield Scott & learns Ft. Sumter only has enough supplies for 4-6 weeks o Scott says it would need 20,000 troops to protect it o Lincoln has to decide what to do ▯ Seward says to abandon Sumter & move to Ft. Pickens in Pensacola, Florida ▯ Then Seward says to send mean notes to France or Spain to start an international war to prevent a domestic war (hoping it would rally the country together) ▯ Pickens only had 50 men – Confederate troops were heading that way already (though they never took it) so they knew they had to hold on to Ft. Sumter o Lincoln makes the decision to resupply Sumter and Pickens (& then proceeds to tell the Confederacy) ▯ If there was an aggressor, it would be the Confederacy, not the U.S. ▯ Jefferson Davis decides it cannot be restocked • PGT Beauregard o CSA commander at Charleston, SC o Commanded to tell Anderson to give up on April 11 thor there would be shots fired April 12 th ▯ Anderson says no th • April 12 – shots are fired from the harbor o Edmund Ruffin – supposedly the first shooter of the war ▯ Fanatical states’ rights supporter ▯ During the war he said he would “never live under yankee rule” ▯ Killed himself when the South lost the war o Lasts for 33 hours – relief ship comes for Sumter, sees the battle happening, and then turns around ▯ April 13, 1861 – Anderson surrenders o 4,000 shots were fired – at least 600 making a direct hit ▯ not a single person was killed ▯ irony: Anderson asked to fire a ceremonial cannon while taking his flag down, and was allowed to do so • the cannon overheated and ended up killing two of his men • Beauregard was named commander of West Point, but after this his home state of Louisiana seceded & he was removed from his position • Another look at the questions (see above) o Question 1 answer: see Apostles of Disunion o Question 2 answer: both sides couldn’t be happy o Question 3 answer: the North believed the US was something worth fighting for ▯ Much more idealistic than we are • The day after o Lincoln declares there’s a “rebellion” (since he doesn’t believe the South is its own entity) and calls for 75,000 militia ▯ Militia: citizen soldiers (kin to national guard) ▯ Time to time can be called in for national emergencies ▯ Every state had one ▯ This is the only force Lincoln could call upon ▯ Precipitates a second round of secession ▯ 4 more states secede (VA, TN, NC, & AR) ▯ 4 border states do NOT secede (MO, KY, WV, MD) • there was a direct correlation with how many slaves are in your state to if you seceded or not 3 month period that follows the battle at Ft. Sumter • the capital of the confederacy is moved from Montgomery, Alabama to Richmond, Virginia o Richmond was the greatest manufacturing city in the South nd o 2 greatest rail hub & financial city in the South o oldest slave state – terribly important it seceded from the Union ▯ example: Robert E Lee and Stonewall Jackson both from Virginia o There were 100 miles between DC and Richmond ▯ Fredericksburg (where half the war was fought) was directly in the middle of the two cities ▯ This is called the Eastern theater • Most of the war was fought in this theater ▯ Western theater: everything else to the Mississippi River ▯ Trans Mississippi Theater: everything west of the Mississippi ▯ Eastern Theater: usually a stalemate, though most of the battles were fought here, there was usually a tie between the South and North ▯ Western Theater: where the war was decided • Constant string of Union victories Who would win the war? • Depended on the character, sculp, & duration of the war • Most people believed the Confederacy would win o Having to conqueror millions of people, cover hundreds of square mileage, bring them back to the Union & make them loyal seemed like an impossible feat ▯ Almost never had been done ▯ All previous wars fought in the U.S. was with small armies and low cost ▯ The largest: Scott’s 14,000 troops during Mexican War • Was going to be bloodier and larger than every other war o Maybe if the North had known they wouldn’t have fought • What finally happened: 750,000 Americans would die o Every other war combined didn’t add up to this (WWI, WWII, Spanish-American, Vietnam, and the War on Terror) o Nowadays a proportional number compared to population: 5- 6 million ▯ Perspective: 50,000 men died in Vietnam • if it would’ve been only the first seven states that had seceded, they would’ve been crushed Pre-War Army & Navy • US Army o 16,000 men, 1,105 of these were officers ▯ of 286 southerners: 192 CSA (Lee), 80 US, 14 no part ▯ of 819 northerners: 26 CSA, the rest US ▯ all numbers related to the officers, the troops primarily stayed loyal to the Union • US Navy o 76,000 men, 1,554 officers (373 of these CSA) o 42 commissioned ships • Weapons o Had been changing rapidly (rifle ammunition) o Hadn’t been a war in 20 years • Medical care o Gruesome • Could the South win? o American Revolution was the predecessor ▯ Southerners saw this as another revolution to separate themselves from an oppressor • Would there be foreign intervention? o France & Spain entered during the American Revolution o Everyone thought Britain & France would enter the war ▯ Southern cotton was crucial to their economy 3 months in between • two key issues o what’s going to become of the border states o organizing armies • border state allegiance was important o most economies tied to North, but social systems tied to South o total of 3.5 million people (10% of US population) Southern resources • 3 slave crops: cotton, sugar, & rice o lower south: 60% of the slaves, most of the crops o upper south: 30% of the slaves o border states: 10% of the slaves, but no crops Delaware • Both governor & legislator were unionist o Didn’t even hold a secession convention • Only 587 people owned slaves o 90% of blacks were free • Irony: Delaware always refuses to voluntarily emancipate th o Don’t give up slavery until 13 amendment • Easily in the Union Maryland • Critical because strategic location o If had seceded, DC would be in the Confederacy • Basically Unionist sympathies o Very strong secessionists in Baltimore though 2/1/16 1:36 PM 2/1/16 1:36 PM
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