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Anthro Week 2

by: Kathryn Hardison
Kathryn Hardison

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About this Document

History of Evolutionary Theory and Darwin
Biological Anthropology
Libby Cowgill
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Hardison on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2050 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Libby Cowgill in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 02/01/16
Anthropology Week 2  Applied Anthropology o Taking knowledge from a classroom and applying it to real world issues o Biological Anthropology  Forensic  Bones, etc. o Archaeology  Cultural Resource Management  It is illegal to build on artifacts o Archaeologists dig these artifacts up for research o Cultural Archaeology  You can get mixed results  Human Terrain  A military program  Cultural anthropologists were sent with the military to give them a  cultural understanding in Afghanistan, Iran, etc.  Ex: A military branch gave soccer balls to the kids as a peace  offering and to make a connection to the Afghanistan people and  children. The soccer balls had different flags on it and it also had a  small image of the Koran. This was seen highly offensive because  the people saw this as “kicking the Koran.” This is where cultural  anthropologists step in.  Ex: Some soldiers would share pictures of their wives with the  men and this was a big cultural no­no   Biological Anthropology o The study of human biology within specific framework of evolution o Sub­disciplines  Primatology, paleoanthropology, popular genetics, bioarchaeology o Bioarchaeology  The study of recent skeletal remains  “Recent” refers to 10 thousand years ago, not fossils  The investigation of trauma, disease, nutritional deficiency, and past life  ways that leave evidence on bone  Ex: Studying the bone of early farmers to track their activity, nutrition,  location, and any pattern o Popular Genetics  The study of processes that change the genetic composition of population  through time o Primatology  The study of primate biology and behavioral adaptations and diversity  Jane Goodall  Louis Leaki  He thought women were more empathetic and put them in the  jungle o Jane Goodall (made it out) o Dian Fossey (went crazy) o Birute Galdikas (lives in Indonesia  o Paleoanthropology  The study of human ancestors, hominids, and evolution via fossil record  Work with geologists and chemists to understand fossils  The Philosophical View of Anthropology o Purpose  A field of mediation  Takes two opposites and finds a connection  Mediation between the individual and group o Our individual genetic programing makes us different but  we are all part of a group  Mediation between the exotic and mundane  Mediation between the colonial and indigenous o Going and exploring cultures and people in 3  world  countries o This shows that people in Papa New Guinea aren’t weird  people… they have interests just like us (eating, sleeping,  sex, love) o Maybe we’re the weird ones… we eat 3 meals a day and  say “God bless you” after people sneeze  Mediation between the past and present o Meaning the difference between contemporary and deep  evolutional history  Mediation between animals and humans  Mediation between science and folk knowledge o Religious, superstitious, and scientific beliefs  We as a culture favor science o We have other ways of knowing the world without the  scientific method  Mediation between humanities and science o Alfred Knober  Anthropology is… “most humane of science and  scientific of humanities”  The Scientific Method of Biological Anthropology o What is Science?  The process of sorting ontological questions into epistemological  questions  Ontological questions: questions that can be asked  Ex: How many angels are in the room? o There’s no way of answering this  Epistemological questions: questions with known answers  o Assumptions in the Science  Things are as they seem  Everything is an illusion  We can’t always believe what we observe  Experts are smart and honest  Yes, they are usually objective and knowledgeable, but not all the  time o Hypothesis  Normative Science  Assumptions aside, what science should be  Starts with a hypothesis  Definition of a Hypothesis  A statement about the world  o Ex: the chair is solid; my shirt is black  Only certain hypotheses get tested in science, which is where bias  comes o Human selectivity o What is more important? o What is more interesting?  Hypothesis Requirements  Testable o The question “are there angels in the room?” is a  hypothesis but it is not testable o This can depend on the time period… and can become  testable as science develops  Falsifiable o Ex: “All crows are black”   You can take 100, 200, or 5,000 pictures of black  crows and this hypothesis still isn’t proven. You  need all of the black crows on Earth to prove this.  What if a white crow died yesterday or 10 years  ago?  One picture of a white crow will falsify your  hypothesis o We can’t prove anything, we can only falsify it  Hypothesis vs. Theory  Hypothesis o A provisional explanation for a phenomenon which  requires falsification through testing  Theory o A broad statement of scientific relationships that hasn’t  been falsified  Ex: gravity, germs cause disease  We’ve failed to falsify these things  Good Hypothesis o How do we test a hypothesis about things in the past and  things we’ve never seen? Anthropological sciences o A good hypothesis makes predictions about the world o Charles Darwin (1859) wrote a book from a hypothesis  about what we would find today  Example o Exploring  Finding fossils  Lucy  You find ½ a pelvis and believe that it is of a human ancestor and it was from a biped o Testing  Compare to other human bipeds  Collect Data  What data? o IQ studies  People used to compare IQs across different races  Be careful because biases can interfere because you decide what  data to collect  Explanation  Proximate Cause vs. Ultimate Cause o Proximate clause is the “how” o Ultimate cause is the “why”  Naturalistic  Science builds a wall between natural phenomena and all else  Ex: What causes disease? Evil spirits vs. germs  Parsimony  Rely on the simplest solution o Occum’s Razor o Ex: Why does the light come on in the fridge?  Mechanism or a tiny gnome?  More explanation is needed for the gnome o Ex: When did life originate?  6 or 7 times?  Believing it was originated once is the easiest   Probability  Scientists aren’t 100% … they speak in probability  Given these circumstances… this is most likely  History of Evolutionary Thought o Main Disciplines that Influenced the Origin of Natural Science  Biology  Needed change about nature of species  Geology  Revision of the age of earth o We thought the earth was a few 1000 years old  Philosophy  We had to think of humans as inside the natural world. Until  Capernicus, we thought we were the center of the universe, not  orbiting around the sun. o Plato  Believed in a flawless universe   Flawless but everyone still saw problems  Believed the world was split to either “perceived reality” or  “reality”  Essentialism  Changed how we saw different species  An ideal for existence for every organism o There was one ideal dog and every other dog was a mistake o Variation is merely flaws/deviation from that perfect form o Age of Earth  In 1654, Ussher calculated the universe was created in 4004 BC  Later dates placed it even more precisely October 23 9AM 4004 BC  John Lightfoot o Believed Adam and Ever were expelled from the garden on a Monday o Philosophy  The Great Chain of Being  Life as a ladder, not a tree  Man tops all other earthly forms and is outside of nature o Nicholas Steno  “father of geology”  Two fishermen brought Steno a shark and Steno studied the teeth because  people found them in the rocks and called them “tongue stones”   First “hard fossils” recognized  If the teeth were part of animal, how did they come inland?  People believed all rock must have started as liquid  “Law of Superstition”  Older stuff on bottom, younger on top o Linnaeus  3 Great Accomplishments  The Nested Hierarchy o Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species o Like Russian nesting dolls o Discovered pattern of evolutionary diversity without trying o Published System Natural (1735)  A fundamental different way of classifying life than the Great Chain of Being  Binomial Nomenclature o How we name animals  Recognized similarities between apes and man o Linnaeus thought apes and man should be classified as  same o Count Buffon  Disagreed with Linnaeus  Tried to re­date the age of the earth   Believed earth formed from hot debris when a comet hit the sun  Wanted to know hot long it took to cool the earth and tested it with large  iron balls o Georges Cuvier  We knew fossils were extinct animals  Found this religiously troubling (why would God kill animals?)  Dead animals didn’t look like the animals then… they didn’t think  about evolutionary change  Extinction is removing a link from the Chain of Being  Catastrophism  Extinctions happened because of big, huge disasters  Idea that the earth withstood multiple catastrophic events o Noah’s Ark (flood)  James Hutton  Contrast to Cuvier o No great catastrophes were needed to explain the geology  of the earth o Unifornitarism  Without disaster, processes in natural world are at  work in the past  Ex: erosion, Grand Canyon  Charles Lydell  Popularized Hutton  Wrote “Principles of Geology” in 1830 o Further explored the idea of unifornitarism  A book and man who influenced Darwin  Jean­Baptiste Lamarck   Major evolutionary thinker before Darwin  Developed theory on the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics  Use and disuse of feature  The guy who came up with first full evolutionary idea but he was  very wrong  Inheritance o Changes in organisms because of things they do over a  course of a lifetime  Ex: giraffes have long necks because they used  them and stretched them  Thomas Malthus  Economist  Interested in the relationship of human populations to resources  Decline of living conditions in 19  century England   Wrote “An Essay on Principles of Population”  More are born than can survive because of resources available  A lot of animals don’t make it to adulthood  A really bad idea to take care of the poor because people reproduce wildly  Where have we gone?  Philosophically o Moved from the Chain of Being to the Nested Hierarchy o Man above nature to man in nature  Geologically o Religious world view (6000 years old) to a very old earth  Biologically  o Unchanging, fixed in time species to Lamarck and  evolution through inheritance  Darwin o Born in 1809 o Spent childhood collecting specimens o Didn’t want a career in medicine because he didn’t like cadavers and operations  without anesthetic o 1831   Darwin set sail on the HMS Beagle   Was invited to come on survey expedition  Charles was a naturalist and took Lydell’s book  Galapagos Islands o Published voyage of the Beagle o Married cousin and had 10 children o Suffered from stomach ailments o In 1837 he started writing ideas of natural selection o In 1838 he read Malthus’ paper o He then did nothing for 20 years o Alfred Russel Wallace  Opposite of Darwin  Corresponded with Darwin before  In Malay Archipelago and got malaria  Came up with theory of natural selection and decided to write to Darwin o Darwin finally published “On the Origin of Species” in 1859


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