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CCJ 3666 Victiminology Notes

by: Ryan Desjardins

CCJ 3666 Victiminology Notes CCJ 3666

Ryan Desjardins

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About this Document

Covers chapter 4 and chapter 8 pages 188-200
Dr. William Doerner
Class Notes
Victimology, ccj 3666, Florida State University, criminology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 3666 at Florida State University taught by Dr. William Doerner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Victimology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 02/01/16
Chapter 4 Study Notes 1. List some different kinds of crime­related costs that victims experience.  Loss of financial belongings, ego hurt, loss of reliability in society 2. List some different kinds of crime­related costs that society shoulders.  If someone gets robbed, they expect a full refund for everything they lost from the courts. The  money the court will give back will come from taxpayer dollars.  3. What does your text mean when it says that crime losses based upon the NCVS represent just “the tip of the iceberg?”  The NCVS showed that there was a gross loss of more than 18 billion with selected personal and  property crime victimization the bulk of those losses were property crimes 89%.  4. Give some national estimates about how much crime costs the American people.  It is estimated that crime annually costs US Society 1.7 trillion. 5. How does victimization affect fear of crime?  Many citizens, whether or not they have been victimized, report being afraid of crime. Some fear walking on the streets in their neighborhood, while others fear physical attack in their own home. More than 40% of the public are afraid of crime. Fear of crime has become an added burden  affecting both those victimized and the general public. 6. What is an “intangible cost?”  A variety of expenses referring not to what was physically taken, but the productivity or value  lost when it was taken. 7. Why does your text refer to crime victims as “the walking wounded?”  The 'walking wounded' references that victims endure their problems and tribulations in silence,  without accepting help from external sources such as the police. 8. To what does the “second insult” refer? The costs of maintaining the criminals justice system. 9. What kind of problems do victims encounter inside the halls of justice?  Time Loss­ usually cases take long days and hours Lost Wages­ usually people will have to go to court and see their lawyers and they miss work.  They are not usually afforded victim compensation by their employers.  Time Waiting­ they spend time away from work, lose money and are not treated courteously.  They usually have to wait for long periods of time before they actually proceed with their case. Parking (you have to pay) Intimidation,  Time Delays,  Cancelled Proceedings. 10. What are some reasons why people do not report their crimes to the police?  The offense is a personal matter, object stolen was returned, reported to another official, etc 11. What does your text mean when it says there is no “truth in sentencing?”  The sentence that an offender receives is never what they actually serve in jail or prison. Even  though victims are told their offenders are sentenced to a certain amount of time there is no  "truth in sentencing" this makes it less likely for repeat victims to come back to the CJ system.  There are new 85% laws that make you serve at least 85% of your sentence. 12. What does it mean to say that victims are twice­victimized?  Twice victimized is the same thing as double­ victimization. It means that they first suffer losses  at the hands of their criminals and then they suffer further losses when they turn to the criminal  justice system for relief. 13. How is non­reporting of crime related to double­victimization? It's a way of double victimization because while victims may not be able to avoid the initial  criminal victimization, they can choose to avoid the system, thus minimizing their losses What does the 'first insult' refer to? Staggering economic costs of the initial offense (annual loss is estimated at $450 billion during  1987­1990) Non economic costs on the first insult refer to lack of insurance coverage, emotional aftermath,  and a sense of lost security. First insult refers to the walking wounded What's a logical cost­benefit analysis when it comes to the criminal justice system? Victims can reduce further losses by avoiding system participation whenever possible, and loss  of citizen trust and support. ***More than half of all violent crimes going unreported to the police*** ***6 out of 10 property crimes go unreported to the police***** Chapter 8; Personal Victimization pgs 189-200 Notes Personal Crimes -Crimes such as murder, robbery, and assault receive a disproportionate amount of attention in the public eye -This is due to the media focusing in so much on them Homicide Victimization -According to the UCR in 2013 there were 14,612 known homicides in the United States -The FBI defines criminal homicide as "the nonnegligent killing of one human being by another..." -However, the UCR program when describing homicides does not include situations that include deaths caused by negligence, suicide, accident, justifiable homicides, traffic fatalities, deaths occurring from gross negligence, and attempts to murder or assaults to murder. -Homicide victims are more likely to be male. -Infanticide means child homicide, and make up 3.9% of the victimization pool. -53% of all homicide victims are between 17 and 34, and black males between those ages are most likely to be killed via homicide. -Involving data regarding violent deaths, a major concern is that the US does not have a comprehensive national clearinghouse that stockpiles data regarding violent deaths. The National Violent Death Reporting System was created in 2003 with the goal of collecting information for all suicides, homicides, and unintentional firearm deaths in all 50 states. -The FBI believes homicide is for the most part an intra racial event, and a intra gender event. -Nonprimary homicide is a situation where the victim did not know the offender very well, if at all. -Primary homicide is a situation where both the victim and the offender shared a face to face relationship. Ex: parents and children, spouses, siblings, etc. -Intimate femicide is a type of homicide where men murder their wives or lovers. -'Battered woman syndrome' is a case where women retaliate by killing their husbands or lovers. -Parricide is a case where women kill their parents, involving patricide (where the victim is the father) and matricide (where the victim is the mother). Assault Victimization -the second form of personal crime. -The UCR breaks assaults into two categories, aggravated assault (which is an Index Offense) and a simple assault (which is a Part 2 Crime). -Aggravated assault: "an unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury". This offense typically involves a weapon and that the act is likely to result in death or serious physical harm to the victim. -The difference between aggravated assault is simply if the victim survived the attack or not. -The problem with measuring assaults using the UCR is that the UCR gathers data on the number of reported aggravated assaults, but only documents the arrests made for simple assaults. -The NCVS provides interesting insight into assaultive behavior, including 1) males are more victimized than females, 2) Blacks are the most victimized racial group, 3) Respondents of Hispanic origin are less likely overall to be assaulted or be the victims of a simple assault, but are more likely to be aggravated assault victims, and lastly 4) assault victimization generally decreases with age. Robbery Victimization -The FBI defines robbery as "the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear". -Robbery is NOT a property crime, instead it is a personal crime because according to the FBI the theft requires a face to face confrontation between the victim and offender that involves the potential use of force in completing the theft offense. -Significant number of offenses that are not shown in the official statistics. -More than four out of every ten robberies occur on the street. -61% of male robbery victims are targeted by strangers. Blacks are by far the most victimized racial group.


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