Psychology 100 Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Biological Foundations (Week 2 of notes)
Psychology 100 Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Biological Foundations (Week 2 of notes) 100
Long Beach State
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Notetaker on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at California State University Long Beach taught by Dr. Angela deDios in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Friday, May 20, y Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Biological Foundations Psychology 100: Dr. deDios The Biological Perspective Biopsychology Psychobiology Behavioral Neuroscience Neuroscience (Everything psychological is ALSO biological) Our Genetic Inheritance Behavioral genetics • Have 23 chromosomes pairs 1/2 from mom, 1/2 from dad • Chromosomes made of DNA • Genes are segments of DNA Traits determines by genes Most are polygenetic • Also impacted by environment! Evolutionary psychology • Natural selection = survival of the fittest • Examples: Men better at spatial tasks 1 Friday, May 20, y Women better at language and memory for locating objects Why? • Careful! Remember biopsychosocial Neural Bases of Behavior Nervous System • Glial cells 90% of brain ’s cells Supporting role • Neurons Dendrites Cell body Axon Terminal buttons Myelin sheath How do Neurons Communicate? Step 1 Communication within a neuron • Neuron is at resting potential • Receives signals from dendrites Excitatory or inhibitory • Triggers neural impulse/action potential/firing Electrical signal 2 Friday, May 20, y All or None Response On or off, no in between (either you had an action potential or you didn ’t) Intense vs. weak stimuli? • # of neurons • How often they fire How do Neurons Communicate? Step 2 Chemical signal to go from 1 neuron to another 1) Action potential in sending neuron 2) Travels to axon terminals and bursts synaptic vesicles 3) Neurotransmitters travel across the synapse to the receiving neuron 4) Neurotransmitters attach and send a signal (excitatory or inhibit ory) Clean up: 1) enzymes 2) synaptic reuptake Neurotransmitters Dendrites have many receptors Lock and key model Drugs work like neurotransmitters • Agonists • Antagonists Acetylcholine Dopamine 3 Friday, May 20, y Endorphins Epinephrine Norepinephrine GABA Glutamate Serotonin The Endocrine System (see Figure 2.9) Related to nervous system Hormones • Work like neurotransmitters • In the bloodstream Slower, but effects last longer Controlled by hypothalamus and pituitary gland The Nervous System 4 Friday, May 20, y Autonomic Nervous System Studying the Brain EEG CT PET MRI fMRI Parts of the Brain Forebrain Midbrain Hi ndbrain The Hindbrain Medulla 5 Friday, May 20, y Pons Cerebellum Hindbrain and Midbrain Reticular formation The Forebrain Thalamus sensory switchboard Hypothalamus 4 f ’s Limbic system • Hippocampus • Amygdala 6 Friday, May 20, y The Cerebral Cortex 2 hemispheres 4 lobes Contralateral control Motor Cortex and Somatosensory Cortex 7
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