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HI 338 week 2

by: Lauren Slusher

HI 338 week 2 HI 338

Lauren Slusher

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These notes cover the week of January 11-15, 2016.
Empire, War, and Revolution in Russia
Dr. Bolger
Class Notes
Russian History
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Slusher on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HI 338 at North Carolina State University taught by Dr. Bolger in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Empire, War, and Revolution in Russia in History at North Carolina State University.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
HI 338 January 11-15 Marx and Lenin • Economics o Capitalism § Lenin wanted higher form than America utilized o Things that lead to inequality among the people § Respect for private property § Inheritance § Supply/demand • Market prices § Division of labor • Socialism before Marx o Plato § The Republic • 380 BC • ideal state o equality o led by intellectuals o Jesus and the Apostles § 30-33 AD § rich will have trouble getting into heaven o Thomas More § Utopia • 1516 • similar to Plato’s Republic • religious tolerance • focused heavily on equality o including gender equality o Maximilien Robespierre § 1758-1794 § compulsion • guillotine o very effective • Karl Marx o Born 1818 o Parents § Heinrich Marx • 1777-1838 • prominent lawyer o in support of the state § Henrietta Pressburg Marx • 1788-1863 o raised Lutheran § became atheist at 18 HI 338 January 11-15 o lived in Trier, Rhineland o went to school to become a lawyer § kept him from being drafted into Prussian Army o Philosophy § Inspired by G.W.F Hegel • 1770-1831 • the dialectic o how ideas are adopted § there’s an antithesis for every thesis • leads to synthesis o Jenny von Westphalen § Baroness • Rich § Married • June 19, 1843 • Were happy • Had money problems o Asked her family for money often § Marx didn’t work much • 7 children o 4 daughters § all had “Jenny” in their name o doctorate from University of Jena § 1841 o journalist for Rheinische Zeitung § January 1842 o Arrest § May 16, 1849 § Told to leave the country • Ends up in London o 1856-1864 o British Museum § Reading room § Museum tavern • Founded 1723 • Freidrich Engels o “The General” o 1820-1895 o factory-owning family o served in Prussian army § impressed Marx o wrote The Condition of the Working Class in England § 1845 HI 338 January 11-15 § discussed bad conditions for workers • failed to mention that his family was in charge of those conditions o friends with the Marx family § raised children after Marx died • The Communist Manifesto o Written by Karl Marx § Edited by Engels o February 21, 1848 o Neue Rheinische Zeitung § June 1, 1848 § Cologne, Rhineland o Class struggle leads to revolution § Proletariat v. Bourgeoisie o Laid out policies § No private land ownership § Progressive income tax § No inheritance rights § Confiscate property of emigrants and rebels § State controlled banking and credit § State controlled communications and transportations § Additional state owned land and factories § Requirement of all to work • “industrial armies” § combine town and country, farm and factory • equitable distribution of populace § free public school • leads to no child labor • 1848 o the year of revolutions § France § Prussia • The German states § Austrian Empire • Italian States • Hungary § Russian Empire • Poland • Ukraine • Das Kapital o Volume I § 1867 § scientific socialism • primitive communism HI 338 January 11-15 • slave society o patricians vs. plebeians = nobility • Feudalism o Nobles vs. serfs = bourgeoisie • Capitalism o Dictatorship of the proletariat § Bourgeoisie vs. proletariat = communists • Industrial communism o Volume 2 and 3 § Published by Engels • After Marx’s death o All volumes are extremely hard to read • Marxism made simple o All that matters is material § No heaven or hell o Who owns the “means of production” determines nature of society § Slaves o History is moving in a clear direction toward greater and greater ownership of the means of production § The working class masses will and must “win” § Communism is inevitable o Transitions between stages are difficult and often violent o Marx never says how the change would happen § Theory, not practice • Lenin o Vladimir “Volodya” Ulyanov § Born 1870 • Nizhniy Novgorod § Died 1924 o Parents § Ilya N Ulyanov • 1831-1886 • key figure in school system § Maria A Ulyanova • 1835-1916 • well-educated o French o German o English o Simbirsk Classical Gymnasium § 1883-1887 § top student § enjoyed sports and chess HI 338 January 11-15 o father died when he was 16 § January 24, 1886 § Lenin lost faith o Aleksander I Ulyanov § Lenin’s brother § Arrested March 1, 1887 § People’s Will Terrorist • Executed May 8, 1887 § Execution made Lenin have to go home to care for their mother o University of Kazan § August-December 1887 § Kicked out for revolutionary activity • Continued distance learning o Mother’s influence o Country home in Kokushkino § Worked with the livestock § Developed theory that peasants couldn’t be trusted • Too superstitious o Olga Ulyanov § Sister § Died in 1890 • He wanted to drop out o Mother told him no o University of St. Petersburg Exam to become lawyer § May 1890 § Activist-lawyer o Nadezhda K. Krupskaya § Nadya § 1869-1939 § revolutionary before marriage to Lenin § well-educated § happy • no children o House of Preliminary Detention in St Petersburg § 7 day detention • ended up being 2 years o 1895-1897 o exile § reduced sentence • due to mother’s influence § Shuhshenkoye Village • Near Lena River o Caused him to take name “Lenin” HI 338 January 11-15 • 1897-1900 o began writing as Nikolai Lenin § name of his brother • died in infancy o revered by Russians § feared by Americans • inspiration for many Hollywood villains What is to Be Done? • All-Russian Imperial Census of 1897 o 125.6 million people § the tsar § 12.5% nobles § 1.5% urban middle class • bourgeoisie § 4% urban workers • proletariat § 82% peasants • People were the target for the pamphlet o Most people couldn’t read • Was written “For the Drawer” o Self publicated § Samizdat o Hid from the Okhrana § Could lead to imprisonment • Aesopian language o Aesop § 620-564 BC o symbols to depict other things/ideas o Names aren’t just names in Russian lit. • The Third Section Investigators o Okhrana o Read everything published • The original What is to be Done? o Novel by Nikolay G. Chernyshevskiy § 1863 o was written during imprisonment o main character § Vera Pavlovna • “True Faith” o discretely promoted communism • Who’s Who in the revolutionary world? o Socialist Revolutionaries HI 338 January 11-15 § SR § 1896 § anarchists o German Social Democrats § SPD § 1863 o Russian Social Democrats § RSLDP or SD § 1898 § economism • trade union politics • Aleksander S. Pikker o Martynov o 1865-1935 • Rabocheye Mysl o Workers’ Thinking § Revolution • Lenin o 1870-1924 • Iskra o The Spark • “don’t trust anyone over 35” • The Preface o March 1902 o Was published outside of Russia o Signed “N. Lenin” § Nikolai • After brother who died in infancy o Contents § Character and main content of political agitation § Organizational tasks for the revolutionaries § The plan for a militant all-Russia organization • The problems with “freedom of criticism” • The problems with worker “spontaneity” • Lenin’s assumptions when writing What is to be Done? o Reader knows different languages § No translations provided • Latin • French o Also knows French ideas and literature • German o Gives German quotes • English HI 338 January 11-15 o Reader knows history § European • German Peasant War o 1524-1525 § Russian • Decembrists o 1825 o Reader knows who is involved in revolutionary activities o Assumes that some readers will be members of Okhrana • Wit and Wisdom o A lot of sarcasm o M.V. Lumonosov § 1711-1765 § Russian scientist § Uses this example to exaggerate intelligence as an insult o Ballhorn § Ballhorning • to make things kid friendly • Chapter 1 o Dogmatism and Freedom of Criticism o Eduard Bernstein § 1850-1932 § member of German SPD § promoted “Economism” • legal Marxism o Boris N. Krichevskiy § 1866-1919 § Editor of Rabocheye Delo § Promoted “Economism” § Ally of Martynov o Friedrich Engels § 1820-1895 § Marx’s coauthor § Ideas • Economic struggle • Political struggle • Lenin added an idea to this o Theoretical struggle • Chapter 2 o The Spontaneity of the Masses and the Consciousness of the Social-Democrats o Russian workers going on strike are ineffective § Can be bought • They’re not smart HI 338 January 11-15 o The 1 edition of Rabocheye Delo seized § December 8, 1895 § All writers were arrested § Unprepared o Karl Kautsky § 1854-1938 § German SPD § Key role of “bourgeois intelligentsia” • Chapter 3 o Trade-Unionist Politics and Social-Democratic Politics o Russian trade union gatherings § Lead nowhere o All revolutionary groups need § Propagandist • Writer • May ideas to a few insiders § Agitator • Speaker • One idea to many outsiders § Vanguard • The people who take the lead • Chapter 4 o The Primitiveness of the Economists and the Organization of the Revolutionaries o Average writer is primitive § Will accomplish nothing o Need a group of professional revolutionaries § Small, elite conspiracy o All-Russian work § All classes in all areas o Coup d’etat is inevitable • Chapter 5 o The “Plan” for an All-Russian Political Newspaper o Weekly newspaper o Central committee o Follows “the party line” § Doesn’t deviate from Marxism o Network of agents § distributors § catalyst § eyes and ears for Lenin • Conclusion o Russian political history can be summed up into 3 periods HI 338 January 11-15 § The 1 Period • 1884-1894 • Rise of Social-Democracy in Russia • Learning Marxism o Gathering interest § The 2 Period • 1894-1898 • Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party organized • Unity of People’s Will terrorists with Marxist theorists rd § The 3 Period • 1898-present • primitiveness among leaders • spontaneity among workers • “disunity, dissolution, vacillation” o What is to be done? § The 3 period needs to end • The Bottom Line o A small, elite vanguard party § One leader, one party, one party line o The goal: § A quick coup d’etat • “the worse, the better” Nicholas and Alexandra • The Crowned Heads of Europe o All somehow related § At least 3 cousins § Led to diseases • Especially hemophilia • Tsar Alexander III o Born 1845 o Ruled 1881-1894 § Succeeded Alexander II • Killed by People’s Will terrorists o Used Okhrana to keep order o Stopped all of his father’s reforms o Built up the economy o The Tsar-Peacemaker § Franco-Russian Alliance of 1892 • Aim was to contain the Germans § Battle of Panjdeh • Northern Afghanistan • To push Muslims back HI 338 January 11-15 • Nicholas o The Tsarevich § Born 1868 § Became tsarevich 1881 o Not the smartest § Lack of education o Alexander III believed he would outlive his son o Nice and polite § “nice guys finish last” • Russian Empire needed strong, robust leaders o Was sent to Japan by his father § Visited all key cities • Included Nagasaki § Had a police escort • Tsuda Sanzo o Tries to assassinate Nicholas § Not executed • Taken as personal offense toward Nicholas o Nicholas developed a grudge o Search for a tsarina § Not the old school search • Bride show of eligible Russian women § Search for a bride = search for political alliance § Candidates • Princess Helene of Orleans o 1871-1951 o French o Member of deposed royal family § Wouldn’t be much of a political asset since not in charge of country anymore o Catholic § Refused to convert to Orthodoxy • Princess Margaret of Prussia o 1872-1954 o Nicholas said he would rather be a monk than marry her • Matilda Kshesinskaya o 1872-1971 o Polish Ballerina o Nicholas’ first choice § Alexander III refuses § The tsarina • Alix of Hesse o 1872-1918 HI 338 January 11-15 o Granddaughter of England’s Queen Victoria o The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine § In Germany § Founded 1806 § Princess o Spoke fluent English and German § Refused to learn Russian o Converted to Orthodoxy o Becomes engaged to Nicholas in April of 1894 § Takes the name Alexandra Feodorovna • The path to being tsar o Alexander III dies November 1, 1894 § Borki Train Crash • October 29, 1888 • 23 dead and 33 injured o # would have been higher if Alexander III hadn’t been there § held roof open for people to escape § kidney laceration • stops functioning o refuses to see a doctor § develops flu • continually gets worse o finally dies o Nicholas completely unprepared to be the tsar • The Zemstvo delegation of January 1895 o Asks the new tsar for a constitution § He says no • His German wife told him to refuse o She said Russia not ready for a constitution • A rough start for Tsar Nicholas o Formal Coronation at the Kremlin in Moscow § May 26, 1896 § Invites Russian people to celebrate • Khodynka field o Usually for military drills • May 30, 1896 st • Promises gifts for the 1 1000 people there o 500,000 people show up § get upset when they don’t get gifts • 1389 people trampled to death o even after the deaths in the field, tsar attends the coronation ball § his German wife convinced him to HI 338 January 11-15 • The Royal Family o Immediately begin producing children § Olga • 1895 • bookworm § miscarriage • 1896 § Tatyana • 1897 • the Tsar’s favorite child § Maria • 1899 • most well-behaved § Anastasia • 1901 • “Little Imp” • tomboy § miscarriage • 1902 § Alexei • 1904 • heir to throne • hemophilia o the tsarina is hated by the average Russian § she is German princess • The tsarina o Doesn’t live up to the Russians’ standards for a tsarina § The Dowager Tsarina Maria Feodorovna • 1847-1928 • seen as the ideal tsarina o has a group of friends at court § Anna A. Vyrubova • 1884-1964 § Princess Sonya Orbelyaniy • 1875-1915 § Princess Milica of Montenegro • 1866-1951 o convinced by her friends that her medical advisor is incompentant § hires “Maitre” Anthelme Nizier Philippe • to help get the tsarina pregnant o prescribes weird things • he was a complete fraud • fired when tsarina gives birth to another girl HI 338 January 11-15 § Seraphim of Sarov • 1754-1833 • canonized after tsarina pushes for it o tsarina gives birth to Alexei after § hires Rasputin • when Alexei diagnosed with hemophilia • Sergei Y. Witte o 1849-1915 o Minister of Finance § 1892-1903 o married to Matilda Ivanovna (Isaakovna) Lisanevich Witte § 1892 nd § her 2 marriage • scandalous § converted Jew • scandalous o established trade schools (commercial schools) § 1894 o converted Russia to a gold standard § 1896 § can now trade on equal basis with other countries o state monopoly on vodka § 1896 § tax method o increased the peasant land holding § 1898 § now easier to buy land • The Trans-Siberian Railway o Built 1891-1916 o Longest railway in the world § 5772 miles § 990 stations § 445 bridges § 39 tunnels § required 62,000 laborers to build • no slave labor o rough terrain o allowed for travel across Russia • The economy o Steel production increased from 1850-1900 § .2 million tons to 2.8 million tons • making more steel than Austria-Hungary o 1.4 million tons in 1900 HI 338 January 11-15 o #2 oil producer in the world by 1900 o Russian railway bonds § Financed everything • Social unrest in the empire o Revolutionary movement shows cracks in the empire’s system § 72% of population is illiterate • subject to rumor • easily swayed § 2/3 of land still belongs to nobility o labor strikes § 1861 • 6 strikes § 1881 • 20 strikes § 1894 • 33 strikes § 1900 • 176 strikes o Socialist-Revolutionary “Combat Group” formed § Armed terrorists § Attack government officials o The Okhrana unable to catch everyone • V.K. Phleve o 1846-1904 o minister of the interior § in charge of Okhrana § 1902-1904 o strategy was to divert the peoples’ attention § Protocols of the Elders of Zion • 1903 • told the readers that the cause of Russia’s problems was the Jewish population o secret society to take Russians’ money § leads to groups being formed to deal with the “problem” • The Black Hundreds o Vigilantes o Not stopped by Okhrana § Pogroms against Jews • Scare them o Sometimes kill them • Strip them of their wealth • Approved by Ministry of Interior HI 338 January 11-15 • First Kishinev Pogrom o April 1903 nd o 48 dead • 2 Congress of the RSLDP o Social-Democrats o July 30-August 23, 1903 o Brussels, Belgium o Lenin proposed change to Revolutionary party (23 members) § Opposed by group who wanted to change to Labor Union Party (28 members) • Lev Davidovich Bronstein “Trotsky” o 1879-1940 • 7 members were Jewish Bund o believed Trotsky had stabbed Lenin in the back § refused to vote in next vote o The sides § Lenin’s was the Bolshevik § Trotsky’s was the Menshevik


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