Intro to Anthropology, Week 3 Notes
Intro to Anthropology, Week 3 Notes ANTH 1101 - 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gregory S. Starrett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
ANTH 1101 – Week 3 Chapter 3 microevolution – a subfield of evolutionary studies that devotes attention to short-term evolutionary changes occur within a given species over relatively few generations of ecological time macroevolution – a subfield of evolutionary studies that focuses on long-term evolutionary changes, especially the origins of new species and their diversification across space and over millions of years of ecological time species – a distinct segment of an evolutionary lineage. Different biologists working with living and fossil organisms, have devised different criteria to identify boundaries between species gene pool – all the genes in the bodies of all members of a given species (or a population of a species) gene frequency – the frequency of occurrence of the variants of particular genes (i.e., of alleles) within the gene pool population genetics – a field that uses statistical analysis to study short-term evolutionary change in large populations polymorphous – describes alleles that come in a range of different forms cline – a patterns of gradually shifting frequency of a phenotype trait from population across geographic space natural selection – a two-step, mechanistic explanation of how descent with modification takes place: (1) every generation, variant individuals are generated within a species as a result of genetic mutation, and (2) those variant individuals best suited to the current environment survive and produce more offspring than other variants mutation – the creation of a new allele for a gene when the proportion of the DNA molecule to which it corresponds is suddenly altered gene flow – the exchange of genes that occurs when a given population experiences a sudden expansion caused by in-migration of outsiders from another population of the species genetic drift – random changes in gene frequencies from one generation to the next caused by a sudden reduction in population size as a result of disaster, disease, or the out-migration of a small subgroup from a larger population phenotype plasticity – physiological flexibility that allows organisms to respond to environmental stresses, such as temperature changes adaptation – (1) the mutual shaping of organisms and their environments. (2) The shaping of useful features of an organism by natural selection for the function they now perform acclimatization – a change in the way the body functions in response to physical stress formal models – mathematical formulas to predict outcomes of particular kinds of human interactions under different hypothesized conditions anagenesis – the slow, gradual transformation of a single species over time phyletic gradualism – a theory arguing that one species gradually transforms itself into a new species over time, yet the actual boundary between species can never be detected and can only be drawn arbitrarily cladogenesis – the birth of a variety of descendant species from a single ancestral species punctuated equilibrium – a theory claiming that most of evolutionary history has been characterized by relatively stable species coexisting in an equilibrium that is occasionally punctuated by sudden bursts of speciation, when extinctions are widespread and many new species appear species selection – a process in which natural selection is seen to operate among variant, related species within a single genus, family, or order Lecture – January 27 Plato – type is real; varation s an abstraction Darwin – variation is real; type/kind/ species is an abstraction – descent with modification genes physical: section of a chromosome chemical: phosphate and sugar “backbones”; nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine) o codon – when nucleotide bases indicate an amino acid functional: assembling proteins out of amino acids o Hemoglobin (beta chain) th sickle-cell anemia – mutation in hemoglobin where 6 codon calls for valine instead of glutamic acid polymorphism – any feature in a population/species that varies descent with modification change – variation, heritable, differential fitness niche – an organism’s place in the natural world (survival, relations, habitat, etc.) niche construction – many living things have the ability to change their niches (place in the environment) evolution – a change in gene frequencies in a population morphology – study/observation of physical form phenotype – morphology that we see (changes with environment) genotype – set of genetic variants you are born with (does not change) changes in response to environment: behavioral, physiological process of genetic change 1. mutation 2. genetic drift – sampling, error - founder’s effect (polydactyly on Pitcairn Island) 3. migration 4. natural selection
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