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HI 338 week 3

by: Lauren Slusher

HI 338 week 3 HI 338

Lauren Slusher

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These notes cover week 3. It is only 1 day due to a holiday and a snow day.
Empire, War, and Revolution in Russia
Dr. Bolger
Class Notes
Russian History
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Slusher on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HI 338 at North Carolina State University taught by Dr. Bolger in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Empire, War, and Revolution in Russia in History at North Carolina State University.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
HI 338 January 20, 2016 War with Japan • The Rise of Japan o Modern Japan is a result of Commodore Matthew Perry’s Expedition § July 8, 1853 § Before this, Europeans had been restricted to Port Nagasaki o Emperor Mutsuhito § The Meiji (Enlightened Rule) Emperor § 1867-1912 § borrow western forms while keeping Japanese essence • The Samurai families to be the captains of Industry o Mitsubishi § The Imperial Diet • Looks like the English Parliament § Made Japan the most powerful country in Asia • China’s problems o East India Company’s Opium trade § Led to many Chinese being lazy • All they wanted to do was Opium o Opium dens o Being carved up by other nations § British § French § German § Japanese § Russian o The Dowager Empress § Tzu-His • 1835-1908 § smart § begins Boxer Rebellion • to expel “foreign devils” • 1899-1901 • the foreign countries band together to stop the rebellion o Austria-Hungary § 296 o Great Britain § 12,020 o France § 3,520 o Germany § 900 o Italy § 80 HI 338 January 20, 2016 o Japan § 20,840 o Russia § 13,150 o United States § 3,420 • The Russian-Japanese confrontation in the East o Russian empire § 146 million people § $61 million GDP § army • 4.4 million troops o 1.1 million active o 3.3 million reserves § 95,000 in East § Navy • 12 battleships • 13 cruisers • 82 destroyers • 70 torpedo boats § called the Japanese “lacquered monkeys” o Japanese Empire § 47 million people § $55 million GDP § army • advised by Germany • 850,000 troops o 257,000 active o 593,000 reserves § navy • advised by British Royal Navy • 6 battleships • 17 cruisers • 25 destroyers • 63 torpedo boats • Port Arthur o February 8-9, 1904 o Japanese attack on Russians with torpedo boats § Japanese didn’t lose anything § Russians lose • 160 sailors killed • 4 battleships damaged • 4 cruisers damaged HI 338 January 20, 2016 o Attack was before declaration of war § Sneak attack o Caused Russia to declare war • Vice Admiral Stepan O. Makarov o 1849-1904 o sent down Trans-Siberian Railway o invented Makarov cap § armor piercing shell § hard tip • ensures round is in the ship before exploding o commanded the Icebreaker Yermak § built in 1899 o worries the Japanese § they do a fake attack in which they lay sea mines • April 13, 1904 • one gets Makarov’s ship o only his coat is recovered • From Sea to Land o The Japanese want to take Port Arthur § Since they laid sea mines, they’ll have to take it by land • They take over Korea o Don’t leave until 1945 o 2 Japanese battleships sunk on May 15, 1904 § leaves them with 4 • Japanese siege on Port Arthur o July 30, 1904 o Russian forces commanded by General Anatoliy M. Stessel (1848-1915) § Stessel is German § Nitwit • Just lets the Japanese attack without doing anything § Causes Russians to lose this battle • On 203 Meter Hill o Force comparison § Russia • 50,000 troops • 506 guns § Japan • 90,000 troops • 474 guns o Japanese shell the harbor and surround the city o Help is supposed to be coming down the Trans-Siberian Railway HI 338 January 20, 2016 • The Secret Japanese War on Russia o Colonel Motojiro Akashi § 1864-1919 § worked undercover in Russian organizational secret network • met revolutionaries o Lenin in Switzerland § July 1904 § Assassination of Minister of the Interior V.K. Phleve • July 28, 1904 • Bombed § Owned SS John Grafton (SS Luna) • September 8, 1905 • Off Finnish coast • The end at Port Arthur o January 2, 1905 o Stessel surrenders before help arrives on the Railway § For no known reason to the Japanese • Russians still had food, water, and ammunition o Russians § 31,306 killed § 24,369 captured § Pacific Fleet lost • 7 battleships • 5 cruisers • 25 destroyers • 20 torpedo boats o Japanese § 57, 780 killed, wounded, and missing • General Aleksey N. Kuropatkin o 1848-1925 o told his troops only to defend § not allowed to attack o knew nothing about fleet command o The Battle of Mukden § February 20-March 10, 1905 § Force Comparison • Russia o 343,000 troops o 800 guns • Japan o 281,000 troops o 500 guns HI 338 January 20, 2016 § Losses • Russia o 60, 143 killed, wounded, and missing o 28,209 captured • Japan o 75, 504 killed and wounded § another defeat for Russia • leadership was horrible • Admiral Z.P. Rozhestvenskiy o 1848-1909 o Russia’s last hope o Energetic and excited o No self-confidence § Even has his subordinate give the farewell speech before departure o Has ships full of coal § Had to stop to refuel every now and then o North Sea attack on British torpedo boats § He thought they were Japanese o Received word of Port Arthur’s fall while refueling in Madagascar § Word of Mukden’s fall soon after o Battle of Tsushima § May 27-28, 1905 § Russians outnumbered • Russian Navy o 8 battleships § all lost o 9 cruisers § 8 lost o 9 destroyers § 7 lost o 4380 troops killed o 5917 troops captured § including Admiral Rozhestvenskiy • Japanese Navy commanded by Admiral Heihachiro Togo o 4 battleships o 27 cruisers o 21 destroyers o 37 torpedo boats § 3 sunk o 117 troops killed HI 338 January 20, 2016 • At Home o Turmoil o Bad leadership in army and navy § led to urban worker strikes § led to peasant violence o ethnic unrest o Okhrana overreactions § Heavyhanded on all occasions o Tsar Nicholas § Oblivious to unrest § Having a good time within Palace walls Monday 1/18 was a holiday Friday 1/22 was a snow day


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