PHIL 1010 - Ch. 3 & Ch. 4
PHIL 1010 - Ch. 3 & Ch. 4 PHIL 1010 - 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lydia Purcell on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Leila E Batarseh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Logic in PHIL-Philosophy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Philosophth Chapter 3 January 25 , 2016 Deductive Arguments Deductive arguments – purpose is to create a conclusion that follows truth premises Inductive Arguments Inductive arguments – purpose is to argue but doesn’t necessarily prove the conclusion is true. Often generalizations Have to evaluate them Ways to T ell Arguments Apart Signs that differ deductive and inductive: 1. indicator words 2. look at what the argument is trying to achieve 3. structure of the argument (Does the premise follow the conclusion? How does the conclusion interact?) Common Deductive Forms Modus Tollens - “if…then…therefore” conditional deductive argument Affirming the Consequent: o “If Riley practices, he will win the game. He will win the game, therefore he is going to practice.” Denying the Antecedent: o “If Riley practices, he will win the game. He isn’t going to practice, therefore he won’t win the game.” if a is not the case of b, then b is not the case of a. Hypothetical Syllogism – “if…if…therefore” Something IS accurate IF something else is accurate if a, then b. If b, then c. Therefore if a, then c. Categorical Syllogism: has one or more clear-cut statements Philosophy Chapter 4 February 1, 2016 ***On a test make sure you can identify an argument form (lists will be provided so you don’t have to memorize) Understand validity Statements are true or false Deductive arguments are valid or invalid (good or bad) Examples: All crows are birds, all birds are animals, therefore all crows are animals. – good, valid deductive All crows are birds, all birds are animals, therefore all animals are crows. – poor, invalid deductive The weatherman said it was going to snow today with a 90% chance. Therefore, it will snow today. – inductive (counter argument = it isn’t a 100% chance and weather predictions aren’t always accurate) Validity Good, valid, premises should support that the conclusion is true ***Not all valid arguments are true in reality. Be sure that you are looking at the structure of the argument and whether the premise supports the conclusion, not that the whole argument is in reality factual. If your premise is false, no one will believe your conclusion is true “Sound” deductive – true premise and it’s valid These are the arguments we want to make The only argument that can’t be valid is when the conclusion is false while the premises are true. ***The only arguments that CAN NOT be VALID are statements with TRUE PREMISES followed by a FALSE CONCLUSION! All types of argument combinations can be invalid Be as imaginative with possible counterattacks, because then you’re more likely to get the answer right Modus Tollens are always valid argument forms TEST IS WEDNESDAY THE 10 , I WILL UPLOAD AN ADITIONAL STUDY GUIDE. SO BE ON THE LOOKOUT
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