Psyc 474 Week 2 notes
Psyc 474 Week 2 notes Psyc 474
Popular in Psychological Basis of Sexuality
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Hinshaw on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 474 at Northern Illinois University taught by Ellen Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Psychological Basis of Sexuality in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
Reviews for Psyc 474 Week 2 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/01/16
Chapter 2 Research Methods in Human Sexuality Scientific method: used in all sciences, shows the steps of how to properly conduct research. o Formulate a research question: something to be answered by the research. Example: Does watching porn help or hurt a couple’s relationship? o Form a hypothesis from the question: example: watching porn damages a couple’s relationship. o Test the hypothesis: conduct a study to see if the hypothesis is supported. Example: The researcher could gather a sample of couples and have them watch porn in the lab. A year later, the same couples could complete a survey, stating if they are still together and rating level of relationship satisfaction. o Draw conclusions: evaluate the results to see if the hypothesis is supported or rejected. Example: The results of this experiment could find of most couples being split up or dissatisfied in their relationship this would support the hypothesis. Results showing satisfaction in relationships would reject the hypothesis. Results of scientific studies are used to explain and predict behavior. Sampling methods: o Random sample: people of all demographics have an equal chance of participating. These are especially difficult to gather in sexuality surveys because some may refuse to participate. o Stratified Random Sample: a sample where subgroups are known, encourages diversity. Example: a certain number of white, black, Hispanic, and Asian people represented. Methods of research o Case study: interviewing specific people to learn from their stories. Can also look at public records or ask close relatives of the personExample: asking grandpa about societal sexual attitudes during his young adulthood to gain understanding of how social norms have changed. o Survey: a questionnaire sent to a large sample to obtain general information. Less expensive than interviews. Example: a survey asking teenagers about what sexual behaviors they have engaged in to see what common adolescent behaviors. Alfred Kinsey interviewed thousands of adults about their sexual behavior, published these results, and taught the ‘marriage course’ to college students. However, his research was flawed, as it was often not confidential. Magazine surveys usually obtain high samples, but many readers are liberal and only a small part of the general population. Sometimes data from sexuality subjects are difficult to record because of societal pressure to conform. Even with confidentiality, some are still afraid their personal information will get out someday. Men often claim to be more sexual than they are and women tend to claim they are less sexual. NaturalistObservation: watching humans or other animals without disturbing them. Also referred to as a field study. Examples: watching couples on the downtown strip of town or parents and children in a grocery store. Unobtrusive observation is often used with this method, as it does not disturb the subject or influence their behavior. Ethnographic Observation: observing different ethnicities. ParticipantObservation: experimenter learns about behavior by engaging with the participant. Example: many experimenters used to have sexual encounters with their participants. LaboratoryObservation: sexual behavior is watched by observers in the lab. o Penile strain gauge and Vaginal plethysmograph: too which are able to measure blood flow to human genitals o This method used to be considered voyeurism, but not so much now. Correlation: a relationship between two variables. Correlation doesn’t=causation. A correlation coefficient is statistic from 1 to 1 showing the strength of a correlation. The closer to 1 on the scale, the stronger the correlation If the coefficient is negative, there is a negative correlation. If the correlation coefficient is positive, there is a positive correlation. Example: if masturbation has a +.9 correlation with relationship satisfaction, you can conclude of masturbation having a strong positive correlation with relationship satisfaction. Experiment: a study done in a controlled lab setting where one or more variables are manipulated. There is often a control group as well where no variables are manipulated, or participants are given a placebo (fake pill or drug). Example: If we wanted to test the effects of the birth control pill on sexual arousal, we would randomly assign some participants to a group who takes a birth control pill (the experimental group) and others to a group who takes a placebo pill (the control group). Ethics o Potential harm: participants must be told of any risks or potential harm possibly coming out of the experiment. Example: A survey on rape experiences could possibly bring up feelings of PTSD. o Confidentiality: answers of each participant must be kept anonymous. Example: answers to an interview on past sexual behaviors must be kept anonymous and names must be changed in publications. o Informed consent: participants must give permission for the experiment before data can be collected. o Use of deception: misleading information given to participants to keep results unbiased in some studies. Example: Telling participants they are taking Viagra when they really received a placebo to see if there is a placebo effect (acting like a drug is helping because they think are taking it).
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'